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BRIDGES Engineer-It Class Summer 2004 History Primitive Peoples: Logs Slabs of Rocks Intertwined Vines or Ropes Roman Empire—First Great Bridge Builders Timber Truss Bridges Masonry Arch Bridges Europeans Followed HRE Until Iron and Steel Use Nineteenth Century— Modern Long Bridges

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bridges

BRIDGES

Engineer-It Class

Summer 2004

history
History
  • Primitive Peoples:
    • Logs
    • Slabs of Rocks
    • Intertwined Vines or Ropes
  • Roman Empire—First Great Bridge Builders
    • Timber Truss Bridges
    • Masonry Arch Bridges
  • Europeans
    • Followed HRE Until Iron and Steel Use
  • Nineteenth Century—
    • Modern Long Bridges
    • Moveable Bridges
slide5
View under RainbowBridge, a massive sandstone bridge in Natural Bridges National Monument, Utah, includes a dried up streambed.

"RainbowBridge, Utah."

log bridge
LOG BRIDGE

Members of a Denver and Salt Lake Railroad Company (D&SL) survey crew pose on a logbridge over the Colorado River in Gore Canyon (Grand County), Colorado.

slide14
View of a settlement in (probably) Utah; shows a logbridge, a stream, and houses. People sit on a porch; a United States flag waves from a pole.
slide15
U.S. Army soldiers from the Ohio Engineers, building a small log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois
log bridge16
LOG BRIDGE

View of hot springs site enclosed by stone and wooden frame buildings, Hot Sulphur Springs, CO

covered bridge
COVEREDBRIDGE
  • Bridges. Old covered bridge, Jackson River, Va.
construction
CONSTRUCTION
  • Must carry own weight and weight of traffic
    • Must withstand force of high winds
    • Must consider effects of contraction and/or
    • Expansion due to temperature changes
    • Most common materials
      • Wood—temporary
      • Steel—for long, strong spans
      • Reinforced concrete—attractive designs but difficult to work with on large bridges
      • Prestressed concrete—stronger than reinforced, cheaper than steel
types of bridges
TYPES OF BRIDGES
  • Fixed
  • Moveable
  • Other
fixed
FIXED
  • Beam or Girder
    • Two parallel beams w/ flooring supported by piers
    • Span can be supported by trestle
    • Used for hwy over/underpasses or small stream crossings
    • Example—Covered Bridge
fixed35
FIXED
  • Truss
    • Beam bridge strengthed by trusses (structural spts joined to form triangles with tie rods)
    • Lighter than ordinary beam sections of equal length
    • Useful for longer bridges
slide38
View west of an iron trussbridge crossing the Colorado River on the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad Montrose line at Grand Junction, Colorado; people and horses are on a sand bar.
slide40
White Water Creek Bridge, Spanning White Water Creek,

Bernard vicinity, Dubuque County, IA

truss bridge
Truss Bridge

View of a trestle bridge that crosses Arastra Gulch near Silverton (San Juan County), Colorado.

slide44
FAI 24 Bridge Over the Ohio RiverPaducah, Kentucky

www.modjeski.com/projects/ servproj/paducah.htm

fixed48
FIXED
  • Arch
    • One or more arches
    • Masonry, reinforced concrete or steel
    • Roadway on toop of arches or suspended by cables
    • Spans can be longer than beam or truss
slide62
Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne & Staten Is, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ
slide69
Arches can also be set above the deck as on the Sydney harbour bridge in Australia. This allows much more space beneath for ships to pass under.

www.bardaglea.org.uk/.../ bridge-types-arch.html

slide70
Blue Water Bridges are a major international crossing over the St. Clair river at the southern end of Lake Huron

Blue Water Bridge

slide72
Port Mann Bridge, Coquitlam-Surrey BCThis graceful steel arch, once the third-longest of its kind in the world, carries the Trans-Canada highway across the Fraser River. In 2002 its capacity was increased with the addition of an eastbound high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane, bringing the total to five

www.balsabridge.com/ bridge-van.htm

fixed74
FIXED
  • Cantilever
  • Double-ended brackets supporting a center span
  • Shore end of each cantilever firmly anchored
  • Center supported by pier
slide79
Quebec

Bridge

slide81
Quebec Bridge

On June 15, 1907 an inspecting engineer noted that two girders of the anchor was misaligned by a quarter of an inch.  Cooper called this a "not serious" problem.  In the inspection report in August, 1907, it was noted that the girders had moved out alignment a bit more and "appeared bent".  Although this condition was a bit more concerning, the work continued.

slide82
Scotland's Firth of Forth

A period museum photo shows cranes atop the massive structure. The bridge was constructed from 1882-1890, 2.5 KM (1.5 miles) across Scotland's Firth of Forth.  Note reflection of photographer from glass frame.

http://www.pre-engineering.com/resources/forth/forthbridge.htm

fixed89
FIXED
  • Suspension
    • Roadway hangs from vertical cables supported by overhead cables strung between two or more towers
    • Longest spans
    • Costly
    • Difficult to design
    • Highly susceptible to winds and swaying
    • Cables can be up to three feet in diameter
slide90
Tanana River suspension bridge.

http://tapseis.anl.gov/guide/photo/Tanana_Bridge.html

slide102
When it opened in 1964, the Verrazano Narrows Bridge was the world's longest suspension span. Today, its length is surpassed only by the Humber Bridge in England.
slide104
Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsing, Tacoma, Washington, 1940

On the morning of November 7, 1940, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge twisted violently in 42-mile-per-hour winds and collapsed into the cold waters of the Puget Sound. The disaster -- which luckily took no human lives -- shook the engineering community and forever changed the way bridges were built around the world. Roadway of Tacoma Narrows Bridge twisting violently in a windstorm, Tacoma, Washington, 1940

fixed107
FIXED
  • Cable-Stayed
  • Suspended by cables that run directly down to roadway from central towers
  • Less costly than suspension
  • Quickly constructable
  • Spans must be limited in length
moveable
MOVEABLE
  • Swing
  • Central span turned 90 degrees on pivot pier placed in middle of waterway
  • Double swing possible
slide123
Coleman Bridge, Spanning Phelps Brook, on Windsor Bush Road, at th, Windsor, Berkshire County, MA
moveable125
MOVEABLE
  • Bascule
    • One or two sections not supported by piers
    • Balanced on one end by counterweights
    • Section jackknifes up to allow passage of ships
    • Most common type of highway drawbridge
slide126
View of an elevated train crossing the Van Buren Street Railroad Bridge which spanned the Chicago River from the Loop to the Near West Side community area in Chicago, Illinois.
slide128
Haarlem old lifting bridge.

Lifting bridges are moveable bridges which enable boats to pass. They vary from simple wooden designs such as many seen in the Netherlands to large steel structures which carry heavy roads such as the bascule bridge in Docklands.

moveable133
MOVEABLE
  • Vertical Lift
    • Central span extends between two towers
    • Balanced by counterweights
    • Variation of this type is bridge over Shatt-al-arab River in Iraq—Roadway sinks into water to allow ships to pass over it
slide135
Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge

Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts

slide137
Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond County, NY
slide138
Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond County, NY
other
OTHER
  • Bailey
    • Small truss bridge made in sections
    • Assembled on shore
    • Pushed out from shore to cover span
    • Transportable to new sites
bailey
Bailey

Tank destroyer advances along

a mountain road, Italy

other150
OTHER
  • Pontoon
    • Floats on water
    • Can be disassembled and moved to new site
    • Supported by pontoons or barges
slide151
The U.S. Army's Sava River bridge is taken apart at nightfall and put together in the morning
slide153
Pontoon bridges, North Anna, constructed by the 50th N.Y.V. Engineers, below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen. Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864
slide157
Evergreen Bridge.The official name of the bridge is the Governor Albert D. Rosellini Bridge at Evergreen Point, after a popular former governor who was in office when the bridge opened.
name that bridge

Name that Bridge

Give the type for each.

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