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Hunters and Gatherers

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  1. 22,000 years ago, people began entering this land. They were able to cross from Asia to North America by afrozen land bridge known as Beringia.

  2. Hunters and Gatherers • The people that crossed the Beringa Land Bridge hunted big game. The wooly mammoth was one of these big game animals.

  3. About 3000 years ago (1200 BC), the first empire to emerge in the Americas was that of the Olmec.

  4. Mysteriously, the Olmec disappeared around 400 B.C. 150 years later Mayan Civilization began to emerge in Guatemala and the Yucatan Peninsula.

  5. The Maya sometimes cut themselves to offer their blood to the gods in sacrifice Sometimes they killed enemies and sacrificed them. Many bodies have been found in cenotes.

  6. In the late 800s, the Maya civilization began to decline. Historians do not know why. One explanation may be that warfare between the different city-states disrupted Mayan societies.

  7. Around 1200 AD, in Central America, the Aztec Empire emerged.

  8. Starting around 1400, the Inca created a large, rich empire. It stretched along the western coast of South America.

  9. TheInca civilization arose in the Andes of South America. It was built on the foundations made by several earlier cultures. Inca was the name of the original ruling family.

  10. Meanwhile in Africa…

  11. The Sahara Highway • Timbuktu became a popular trading spot that linkedWest Africa to the coastal ports of North Africa, and from these ports to those in Europe and Asia.

  12. Three African Kingdoms Flourish • From 600 to 1600 AD there was a succession of Empires beginning with Ghana, then Mali, and then in the 1400’s, Songhai. • The Songhai had gained taken power by gaining control of the Sahara Trade.

  13. Songhai • The Songhai became extremely rich because they became taxing all the goods that came through their region. • With the money that they made off of taxing traders, they were soon able to raise a large army.

  14. Slavery in West Africa was well established in Africa before the Europeans came. People became slaves by being captured in battle, being kidnapped, or being forced to through judicial punishment.

  15. So… What about Europe?

  16. In the 1300’s the Europeans suffered from an epidemic of plagues that killed over 25 million people

  17. Rise of Nations • The Crusades strengthened the monarchy by draining money from the nobility. • The monarchs began collecting new taxes, raising professional armies, and strengthening central governments.

  18. Decline in Church Authority • Corruption by the Church led Martin Luther to lead the Reformation. • This split Christianity in Western Europe into two groups, Catholics and Protestants.

  19. Portugal takes the lead • Innovations funded by Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal helped fuel overseas exploration • He sponsored an up to date sailing school and some of the earliest voyages. • For 40 years he would send ships out further and further along the coast of West Africa.

  20. Bartolomeu Dias • Price Henry did not live long enough to see Bartolomeu Dias sail around the tip of Africa in 1488.

  21. In August 3, 1492, Columbusleft Palos, Spain in the Santa Maria, with the Pintaand the Niñaalong side. He set sail to find a new path to Asia. His trip was financed by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. •

  22. In1501,Amerigo Vespucci explored the eastern coast of South America.Hesaidthat these landswereaNew World.His expedition was financed by Italy.

  23. In 1493, Ponce de León sailed with Christopher Columbus on Columbus' second voyage to the Americas. He and his family settled on an island in the Caribbean named Hispaniola (Dominican Republic). He became a military commander at this post and was appointed deputy governor. From:

  24. In 1506, Ponce de León discovered a nearby island named Borinquen. While there, he found large deposits of gold. From:

  25. Methods of Colonization • The European System of Colonization – the establishment of distant settlements controlled by the parent country, was established by the Italians during the Crusades in Lebanon. • The Portuguese did it in West Africa. • The Spanish had also done it in the Canary Islands.

  26. Disease Ravages the Native Americans • The Europeans brought with them: • Measles • Mumps • Chicken pox • Small pox • Typhus measels mumps Small pox Chicken pox