Chemical Energy and Food • Food is the energy source for cells. The energy in food is measured in calories. • A calorieis the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. There are 3811 calories in one gram of sugar glucose. • The cell doesn’t burn glucose directly but converts into an energy source, ATP, through a process that begins with the pathway called glycolysis.
Glycolysis • Glycolysis is the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a three carbon compound. • Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell. • In the process of breaking glucose in half two molecules of ATP are needed but four molecules of ATP are produced creating a net gain of two molecules of ATP • 4 high energy electrons are also removed and added to NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) creating NADH, which helps pass energy from glucose to other pathways in the cell.
Glycolysis Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid To the electron transport chain
Chemical Pathways After Glycolysis Glucose Krebs cycle Electrontransport Glycolysis Alcohol or lactic acid Fermentation (without oxygen)
Fermentation • When oxygen is not present, fermentation follows glycolysis • ● Fermentation releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen, this is an anaerobic process. • ● There are two main types of fermentation: • Alcoholic fermentation • Lactic acid fermentation • ● Alcoholic fermentation example is yeast which causes carbon dioxide to form and make bread rise. • ● pyruvic acid + NADH alcohol + CO2 + NAD+
Fermentation • ● Lactic acid fermentation: • Pyruvic acid + NADH lactic acid + NAD+ • ● Lactic acid is produced in your muscles during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to the tissues. • ● “FEEL THE BURN” is actually the result of a build up of lactic acid in the muscles and can become painful and lead to cramps.
Lactic Acid Fermentation Lactic acid Glucose Pyruvic acid
Overview of Cellular Respiration • If oxygen is present, The Krebs Cycle and electron transport chain follow glycolysis • Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the electron transport chain make up the process called cellular respiration. • Cellular respirationis the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen (an aerobic process). Cellular Respiration Chemical Equation
Cellular Respiration: An Overview Mitochondrion Electrons carried in NADH Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2 Pyruvic acid Glucose Electron Transport Chain Krebs Cycle Glycolysis Mitochondrion Cytoplasm
The Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) • The Krebs cycle is the 2nd stageof cellular respiration. (glycolysis is the 1st stage) • During the Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions. • The Krebs cycle is also known as the citric acid cycle, because citric acid is one of its 1st products.
Stages Of The Krebs Cycle • The Krebs cycle starts when pyruvic acid formed by glycolysis enters the mitochondrion. • The pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide and a 2-carbon acetyl group. • The 2 carbons of the acetyl group join a 4-carbon compound to produce citric acid. The Krebs cycle continues in a series of reactions. In these reactions, two energy carriers accept high-energy electrons. NAD+ is changed to NADH, and FAD is changed to FADH2. These molecules carry high energy electrons to the electron transport chain. The carbon dioxide is released as a waste product.
The Krebs Cycle Citric Acid Production Mitochondrion
The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) • The ETC is the 3rd and final stage of cellular respiration. • The ETC uses the high energy electrons to change ADP into ATP. • In the ETC, high energy electrons move from one carrier protein to the next. • At the end of the chain, oxygen pulls electrons from the final carrier molecule. These electrons join with hydrogen ions, forming water. • Each transfer along the chain releases a small amount of energy. ATP synthase uses the energy to produce ATP.
Electron Transport Chain Electron Transport Hydrogen Ion Movement Channel Mitochondrion Intermembrane Space ATP synthase Inner Membrane Matrix ATP Production
Cellular Respiration Overview Glucose(C6H1206) + Oxygen(02) Glycolysis KrebsCycle ElectronTransportChain Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water (H2O)
ATP Totals For Cellular Respiration • ● The totals for the cellular respiration cycle are as follows: • -Glycolysis: +4 ATP – 2 ATP = Net gain 2 ATP • -Krebs Cycle and ETC: +32 ATP • -Net gain for entire cycle is 34 ATP • Note: remember there are 2 ATP used in glycolysis, therefore only 34 ATP are realized for the cell’s further needs. • -The total number of ATP molecules formed during cellular respiration is 36
The Partnership Between Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration • The energy flows in photosynthesis and cellular respiration occur in opposite directions. • On a global level, photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and puts back oxygen. • Cellular respiration removes oxygen from the atmosphere and puts back carbon dioxide.