A clause is a group of words that contain a subject and a verb. Clauses can take the place of different parts of speech.
Uses of Noun Clauses • After some verbs and adjectives • To include a question in a statement • To report what someone has said or asked
you are familiar with adjective clauses. • The man, who looked sleepy, sat down. • Who looked sleepy is an adjective clause. It is taking the place of an adjective. An adjective is used to describe nouns and so do adjective clauses. • We could re-write the sentence with an adjective. • The sleepy man sat down.
Similarly, a noun clause can take the place of a noun. This lesson will explain noun clauses, give examples of noun clauses, and then provide several quizzes to practice forming noun clauses.
* Verbs are often followed by objects. Theobject is usually a noun, a noun phrase, or anoun clause. • I saw a girl. (noun) • I saw his sister. (noun phrase) • I know his address. (noun phrase) • I know where he lives. (noun clause) * A noun clause has its own subject and verb. • where he lives (he is the subject of the noun clause) (lives is the verb of the noun clause) * A phrase doesn’t contain a subject and a verb.
There are three basic types of nounclauses. These types are: 1) noun clauses that start with a question word (where, how, who, when, why) 2) noun clauses that start with whether or if 3) noun clauses that start with that.
SO, A noun clause can begin with: • a question word I know where he lives. Do you know when they left? Please tell me what she said. I wonder why Tom is absent. • if or whether Do you know if Eric is at home? I don’t know whether he is married or not. • That I know that the world is round.
Noun clauses can follow certain verbs and adjectives thatexpress mental activities • Agree notice afraid positive • Believe realize angry sorry • Decide remember aware surprised • Doubt see certain sure • Feel show clear worried • Forget suppose convinced • Guess think disappointed • Hear understand glad • Hope wonder happy • Imagine say pleased • Know tell sad
1. Noun Clauses that Start with a Question • Noun clauses that start with a question are usually used to answer a question. The following examples should better explain this.
Where does Sadri live? I don't know where Sadri lives. "where Sadri lives" is a noun clause. We could answer this question without a noun clause by saying the following. I don't know Sadri's address. The noun phrase, Sadri's address, replaces with the noun clause, where Sadri lives.
What time is it? I don't know what time it is. • "what time it is" is a noun clause. We could answer this question without a noun clause by saying the following. I don't know the time. In this case, the noun phrase, the time, replaces the noun clause, what time it is.
2. Noun Clauses that Start with Whether or If • Noun clauses that start with whether or if are used to answer yes/no type questions. Whether and if are usually interchangeable.
* When a yes/no question is changed to a noun clause,if is usually used to introduce the clause. Did Alice go to Chicago? I wonder if Alice went to Chicago. Do you know if Eric is at home? I don’t know if Eric is at home. * When if introduces a noun clause, the expression ornot frequently comes at the end of the clause. I don’t know if Eric is at home or not. * Whether has the same meaning as if. I don’t know whether Eric is at home. I don’t know whether Eric is at home or not. I don’t know whether or not Eric is at home. (NOT to use for if)
Does Judy own a Honda? I don't know if Judy owns a Honda. "if Judy owns a Honda" is a noun clause. We could answer this question without a noun clause by saying the following. I don't know the answer. In this case, the noun phrase, the answer, replaces the noun clause, if Judy owns a Honda.
Will Sadine be at work on Friday? I don't know whether Sadine will be at work on Friday. • "whether Sadine will be at work on Friday" is a noun clause. We could answer this question without a noun clause by saying the following. I don't know the answer. In this case, the noun phrase, the answer, replaces the noun clause, whether Sadine will be at work on Friday.
3. Noun Clauses that Start with That. • Noun clauses that start with that are used to answer questions in which person who is answering is thinking, giving an opinion, or using a mental activity verb.
A noun clause can be introduced by the word that. I think that Mr. Jones is a nice person. I hope that you can come to the game. Mary realizes that she should study harder. I dreamed that I was on top of a mountain. * The word that is often omitted, especially in speaking. I believe that everyone should do he or her part. I believe everyone should do he or her part. • Common verbs followed by “that-clauses” admit, agree, assume, believe, conclude, decide, demonstrate,discover, doubt, dream, fear, feel, figure out, find out, forget,guess, hear, hope, imagine, indicate, know, learn, notice,observe, predict, presume, pretend, prove, read, realize, recall,recognize, regret, remember, reveal, show, suppose, suspect,teach, think, understand
* It follow expressions with be + adj. or be + past participle. I am sure that the bus stops here. (that can be omitted) I’m glad that you’re feeling better today. I’m sorry that I missed class yesterday. I was disappointed that the peace conference failed. * Two very common expressions. It is true that the world is round. It is a fact that the world is round. * Other common expressions followed by “that-clauses” be afraid that, be amazed that, be angry that, be ashamed that,be aware that, be certain that, be convinced that, be delightedthat, be fortunate that, be furious that, be happy that, be horrifiedthat, be impressed that, be lucky that, be pleased that, bepositive that, be proud that, be sad that, be shocked that, beterrified that, be surprised that, be worried that
Do you know the location of an ATM? I believe that there is an ATM in the supermarket. "that there is an ATM in the supermarket" is a noun clause.
Is Dr. Elimelech a good instructor? I think that Dr. Elimelech is a good instructor. "that Dr. Elimelech is a good instructor" is a noun clause. This noun clause could be omitted by saying the following. I think so.
Other That Clauses * It follow expressions with be + adj. or be + past participle. I am sure that the bus stops here. (that can be omitted) I’m glad that you’re feeling better today. I’m sorry that I missed class yesterday. I was disappointed that the peace conference failed. * Two very common expressions. It is true that the world is round. It is a fact that the world is round. * Other common expressions followed by “that-clauses” be afraid that, be amazed that, be angry that, be ashamed that,be aware that, be certain that, be convinced that, be delightedthat, be fortunate that, be furious that, be happy that, be horrifiedthat, be impressed that, be lucky that, be pleased that, bepositive that, be proud that, be sad that, be shocked that, beterrified that, be surprised that, be worried that
Most of the time, native speakers will drop the word that. It is perfectably acceptable to say the following. • I think that Dr. Elimelech is a good instructor. OR I think Dr. Elimelech is a good instructor. • I believe that there is an ATM in the supermarket. OR I believe there is an ATM in the supermarket.
The words whoever, whatever, wherever, whichever, whenever and however have similar meanings to ‘it doesn’t matter who, what, which etc.,’ it may be. • A word of this kind has a double function: • it acts as a subject, object or adverb in its ownclause. • It also acts as a conjunction joining its clause to the rest of the sentence.
-ever clauses 1 Whoever (refers to a person) 2 whatever (refers to nouns—discoveries) 3 whenever (refers to “every time that . . . ”) 4 Wherever (refers to places) 5Whichever 6However
Whatever you may say I am not going to take him back. (= It doesn’t matter what you say, I won’t take him back.) • Wherever you go, I shall follow you. (It doesn’t matter where you go, I shall follow you.) • Whoever disobeys the law must be punished. (It doesn’t matter who disobeys the law, he/she must be punished.) • Keep calm, whatever happens. • However much he eats, he never gets fat.
These words are also used to suggest something not definitely known. • I shall come whenever I can slip away. • We shall send whoever is available. • You will have to be content with whatever you can get.
We can think about the 'W' -ever words semantically as the 'W' word + the quantifier 'any'. The trick to understanding these terms is to realise that they apply to any single one of the referents, and at the same time refer to all of the referents. • Whatever - Any thing (This could also be every thing) • Whenever - Any time (This could also be 'every time') • Wherever - Any 'where' (Anywhere or everywhere). • Whoever - Anyone (Any person or every person, or sometimes used to refer to a person unknown to the speaker) • Whichever - Any 'which' (Choice between a group or set). • However - Any 'way' (In any manner or way, regardless of how).
Examples of Whatever * Whatever you do, pay attention to the road when you are driving. (You can do anything as long as you pay attention to the road) • They say you can buy whatever you desire in Harrods, as long as you have the money. (You can buy anything in Harrods, if you have enough money) • The student was so intelligent that whatever we taught, she understood. (She understood everything that she was taught) • The criminal said he would do whatever he could in order to get out of jail. (He would do everything or anything he could to get out of jail)
Examples of Whenever • Whenever the neighbors flush the toilet, water comes through our ceiling. (Every time they flush the toilet it happens) • Whenever she calls, the landlord is busy. (Every time she calls the landlord, he/she is busy) • Call me whenever you need something. (Call me any time you need something) • Whenever he comes home, he acts like a hungry dog. (Ever time he comes home, she is like that) • Whenever I go to sleep early, I have extraordinary dreams. (Every time I go to sleep early, I have these dreams)
Examples of Wherever • Wherever you go in the world, remember where you came from and where you are going. (Anywhere you go in the world, remember those things) • With a good education in English, wherever you go, you will have a good time. (If you are taught well, you will have a good time anywhere) • Wherever we put the TV in the room, the reception is bad. (Anywhere we put the TV the reception is bad) • You can stick the present that she gave you wherever you want, just don't let her know if you put it in the rubbish bin. (You can stick that present anywhere)
Examples of Whoever • Whoever broke the vase, can you please replace it? (Any specific person who broke the vase, please replace it) • Whoever goes to the shop, please don't steal anything. (Any one or more of the people who will go to the shop, don't steal anything) • Whoever it was that knocked on the door last night must have been drunk, because they dropped twenty dollars as they ran away. (The unknown person who knocked on the door dropped twenty dollars) • Whoever you just spoke to, she must have some special powers, because you look like you fell in love. (The unknown person who you spoke with must have some special powers)
Examples of Whichever • You can drive whichever of the cars you want. (You can choose to drive any of the cars) • Whichever dress I wear tonight, I'm worried that my butt will look fat. What do you think? (Person is worried that the person's butt looks fat in any of the selected dresses) • Whichever road you take to Rome, you will need to drive carefully. (There are a number of roads to take, and it is necessary to drive carefully on any one that you take) • Whichever pizza you ordered for her, it must have had some very delicious ingredients. (The pizza that was ordered from those available had some special ingredients)
Examples of However • You can dress however you like for the party, it's not formal. (You can dress the way that you want for the party) • However much she eats, she never puts on weight. (It doesn't matter how much she eats, she never gets fat) • You can do it however you like, I don't really care as long as it gets done. (you can do it any way that you want) • However rich they may be, it still isn't enough for them. (It doesn't matter how rich they may be)
Now, answer the followingquestions by forming noun clauses with your instructor’s help 1. Where is the Multimedia Classroom?I don't know _____________ 2. When is spring break?I don't know _____________ 3. How much will it cost to register for classes this summer?I don't know _____________ 4. What is the special in the cafeteria?I don't know _____________
5. Where did Sophorn go?I don't know 6. How long will it take me to master noun clauses?I don't know _____________ 7. Is Keila in the Writing Center?I don't know _____________ 8. Does LaTasha have any classes on Friday?I don't know _____________
9. Can Elizabeth speak French?I don't know _____________ 10. All the students will pass the test.We hope _____________ 11. It might rain this weekend.Everyone is sad _____________ 12. All the students know where the library is.The teacher assumed _____________
13. Harold will write more noun clause quizzes.I think _____________ 14. Coffee is good for you.I don't belive _____________ 15. Maria used to live in Sweden.I doubt _____________
THAT or WHAT 1. I wonder if this is ______you arelooking for. 2. Our school is quite different from _______ it was before. 3. Father made a promise ______ if I passed the examination he would buy me a computer. 4._______ I can’t understand is why he has changed his mind. 5.___________ the earth is round is known to us all.
16.You can hardly imagine ______when he heard the news . A. how he was excited B. how was he excited C. how excited he was D. he was how excited
Whether or IF 1. I don’t know _______ I’ll be free tomorrow. 2. I don’t know _______ I’ll be free tomorrow or not. 3. The question is ______ this book is worth writing.
4. It depends on ______ we will have enough money. 5. ______ they can do it matters little to us. 6._______ you are not free tomorrow , I’ll go without you
what,whatever,who,whoever 1._________ was said here must be kept secret. 2. _______we need is more time. 3._______ made the long distance call to him is not important. 4._________ beaks the law will be punished.