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Schizophrenia. www.psychlotron.org.uk. Clinical description Biological explanations Psychological explanations. Schizophrenia. www.psychlotron.org.uk. Schizophrenia is not a multiple personality A psychotic disorder involving a break with reality

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Schizophrenia

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Clinical description

  • Biological explanations

  • Psychological explanations


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Schizophrenia

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Schizophrenia is not a multiple personality

  • A psychotic disorder involving a break with reality

  • Many different manifestations with a few shared features


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Schizophrenia diagnosis

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • At least two of the following:

    • Hallucinations (us. auditory or somatic)

    • Delusions (oft. linked to hallucinations)

    • Disorganised speech

    • Disorganised or catatonic behaviour

    • Negative symptoms

  • Social & occupational dysfunction

  • Duration of several months


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Schizophrenia diagnosis

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Diagnostic subtypes

    • Paranoid

    • Catatonic

    • Disorganised

    • Undifferentiated

  • Type 1 - Episodic, mainly positive symptoms

  • Type 2 - Chronic, mainly negative symptoms


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Schizophrenia prevalence

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • 1% lifetime risk in general population

  • Holds true for most geographical areas although rates do vary

    • Abnormally high in Southern Ireland, Croatia; significantly lower rates in Italy, Spain (Torrey, 2002)

  • Risk factors include low SES, minority ethnicity, urban residence


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Schizophrenia onset

www.psychlotron.org.uk

Source: CIHI (2001)


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Schizophrenia prognosis

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • ‘Rule of the thirds’ (rule of thumb):

    • 1/3 recover more or less completely

    • 1/3 episodic impairment

    • 1/3 chronic decline

  • Confirmed in US & UK (Stevens, 1978)

  • With treatment about 60% of patients manage a relatively normal life

  • Prognosis better in non-industrialised societies


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Schizophrenia explanations

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Biological

    • Genetics

    • Neurochemicals & hormones

    • Structural brain abnormalities

  • Psychological

    • Family dynamics

    • Life stress

    • Urbanicity