Chapter 3 . Nonverbal Communication. What is nonverbal communication? . “Everything that communicates a message but does not use words” Facial expressions, hand movements, physical appearance and attractiveness, timing, tone of voice, eye movement, use of space, touch, smell…what else?.
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Chapter 3 Nonverbal Communication
What is nonverbal communication? • “Everything that communicates a message but does not use words” • Facial expressions, hand movements, physical appearance and attractiveness, timing, tone of voice, eye movement, use of space, touch, smell…what else?
Decoding and Encoding Nonverbal Communication • Decoding: Drawing/making meaning from what you observe • Encoding: Using nonverbal communication to turn your feelings into behavior • Good encoding helps your listeners understand you; good decoding helps you figure out what they are telling you
Two Modes of Nonverbal Communication (NVC) • Static NVC: Elements of an interaction that do not change • Arrangement of furniture, décor of a room, clothes worn during an interaction, speaker’s ethnicity • Dynamic NVC: Elements that do change • Facial expressions, body position, eye movement, pitch and tone of speaker’s voice
Similar to verbal communication: Symbolic Guided by rules Linked to culture Personal Ambiguous Different from verbal communication: Less controlled Continuous How Does Nonverbal Communication Work?
Functions of Nonverbal Communication • Interconnecting with verbal communication by… • Repeating a verbal message • Substituting for a verbal message • Emphasizing a verbal message • Moderating a verbal message
Functions of Nonverbal Communication Interconnecting with verbal communication by… • Contradicting a verbal message • Deciding whether or not to engage in conversation • Punctuating how you talk to other people • Beginning and ending interactions
Functions of Nonverbal Communication • Identifying specific individuals • Conveying emotional information • Attitudes about the other person • Attitudes toward the situation • Your attitude toward yourself • Establishing relational meaning and understanding
Elements of Nonverbal Communication • Proxemics (space and distance) • Primary, secondary, public • Personal space (‘body buffer zone’) • Space and distance can signify relationships and are affected by relationships as well
Elements of Nonverbal Communication • Kinesics (movement) • Posture, gestures, eye contact and gaze • Posture – open or closed • Gestures – emblems or illustrations
Elements of Nonverbal Communication • Vocalics/Voice (paralanguage, or vocal characteristics) • Voice quality, tone/pitch, rate, silence • ‘Vocalic nonverbal behavior’ • Also used to regulate interactions
Elements of Nonverbal Communication • Chronemics (the use of time) • Choice of time for events • Duration of events • Also used to regulate interactions • Timing of speaking • Interruption and overlap and cultural ‘norms’
Elements of Nonverbal Communication • Haptics (the use of touch) • Functional/professional • Social/polite • Sign of influence or status • Physiological stimulus • Can be used to regulate interaction
Nonverbal Communication as a System • NVC is related to the verbal messages used with it • NVC has a relationship to other NVC communication going on • NVC is interpreted depending on its context • NVC is also interpreted according to relationships
Improving Your Nonverbal Communication • Be aware of your own NVC errors • Work on your decoding by being more attentive, bonding, coordinating, detecting, and encouraging • Work on your own encoding by affirming, blending, consistency, directness, and emotion