Unit b energy transformations
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Unit B – Energy Transformations. Chapter 5 – Energy Transformations. In this chapter you will learn: how to identify different types of energy that some energy conversions absorb energy and some release it how energy is converted and that energy is lost with each conversion

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Chapter 5 energy transformations
Chapter 5 – Energy Transformations

  • In this chapter you will learn:

    • how to identify different types of energy

    • that some energy conversions absorb energy and some release it

    • how energy is converted and that energy is lost with each conversion

    • about the law of conservation of energy

5 1 energy
5.1 - Energy

  • Energy is the ability to do work

  • Energy causes changes in:

    • temperature

    • direction of motion

    • speed

    • shape

Two types of energy
Two Types of Energy

  • Potential Energy is stored energy

  • Examples:

    • chemical energy stored in the food you eat

    • gravitational potential energy when you are at the top of a hill

  • Kinetic Energy is energy due to motion

  • Examples:

    • the flow of electrons (electricity)

    • skiing down a mountainside

5 2 many forms of energy
5.2 – Many Forms of Energy

  • Energy on the Earth originates as solar energy from the Sun

  • Energy from the Sun is converted by plants:

    solar  chemical  kinetic

    (photosynthesis) (cellular respiration)

Unit b energy transformations

5 3 understanding energy conversions
5.3 – Understanding Energy Conversions

  • Energy must get converted so that it is useful

  • Energy entering a system is called input energy

  • System that changes the system is called the converter

  • Energy leaving the system is called the output energy

Unit b energy transformations

  • When energy is converted from one form to another, thermal energy is produced

  • Sometimes heat energy is useful:

    • ie. heat released during cellular respiration heats your body

    • ie. chemical reaction in a “hot pack”

  • When the thermal energy is not useful, it is called waste energy:

    • ie. heat from a light bulb

    • ie. heat from a car engine

5 4 conservation of energy
5.4 – Conservation of Energy energy is produced

  • Whenever energy is converted by a device, the amount of energy coming out is equal to the amount of energy coming in

Unit b energy transformations

What types of energy are produced by a blow dryer? energy is produced

  • Thermal energy provides the heat to dry

  • Kinetic energy in the moving air

  • Some electricity is converted to sound energy

  • The glowing elements produce light energy

  • Friction produces thermal energy that is not used to dry your hair.

5 5 energy conversion systems
5.5 – Energy Conversion Systems energy is produced

  • Some output energy produced during an energy conversion is useful (useful output energy) and some output energy is not (waste output energy)

Unit b energy transformations

Pages 98 113

Pages 98 - 113 energy is produced

Chapter 6 – Electric Energy at Home

Chapter 6 electrical energy at home
Chapter 6 – Electrical Energy at Home energy is produced

  • In this chapter you will learn :

    • about technologies that various forms of energy into electricity

    • how appliances convert electricity into other forms of energy

    • how to calculate the efficiency of electrical devices

    • how to measure electricity and calculate power

    • why it is important to conserve energy

6 1 generating electrical energy
6.1 – Generating energy is producedElectrical energy

  • In the early 1800s, Michael Faraday discovered that moving a magnet through a coil of copper wire generated an electrical current

  • Faraday used these observations to make the first electric generator

Unit b energy transformations

Unit b energy transformations

Electrical current can be increased by: energy is produced

  • Increasing the number of coils

  • Using a stronger magnet

  • Moving the magnet/ wire faster

Unit b energy transformations

Energy conversion in a generator: energy is produced

  • Not all of the kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy. If energy is conserved during a conversion, what happened to the rest of the kinetic energy?

Chapter 6 2 generating and distributing electric energy
Chapter 6.2 – Generating and Distributing energy is producedElectric Energy

Turbines and Generators

  • Generators contain one or more turbines

Unit b energy transformations

Power generating plants
Power Generating Plants to a generator.

  • Hydro-electric, thermo-electric, and thermonuclear plants all use turbines and generators to produce electricity.

Coal fired thermo electric generation
Coal-fired Thermo-electric Generation to a generator.

  • Coal in Alberta is cheap and plentiful

  • Emissions pass through a “scrubber” to remove some of the harmful chemicals from the smoke

How it works
How it works: to a generator.

  • Coal is pulverized and combusted

  • Thermal energy from burning coal converts water to steam

  • High-pressure steam causes turbine blades to turn

  • The spinning turbine turns the generator, producing an electric current

  • The steam leaves the turbine and enters a cooling chamber before returning to the furnace.

Hydro electric plant
Hydro-electric Plant to a generator.

  • The kinetic energy of falling water is used to produce electricity

Hydro electric generation
Hydro-electric generation to a generator.

  • What are some possible advantages and disadvantages to using hydro-electric power?

Thermonuclear power plant
Thermonuclear Power Plant to a generator.

  • Uranium atoms are split by nuclear fission to release large amounts of thermal energy.

  • Thermal energy makes steam.

  • Steam is used to turn turbines, producing electricity.

Unit b energy transformations

Japan Nuclear Reactor Explanation

Distributing power the power grid
Distributing Power - The Power Grid producing electricity with nuclear energy?

  • Electrical generating plants are often located far away from communities.

  • Electricity must be transmitted hundreds of kilometers along power lines.

  • About 10% of energy is wasted as thermal energy as it moves along the power lines.

  • Constructing power plants close to communities creates environmental concerns.

Quick review
Quick Review! producing electricity with nuclear energy?

6 3 electrical energy and power
6.3 – Electrical Energy and Power producing electricity with nuclear energy?

  • We can measure how fast energy is transferred from one object to another; how fast work is done

  • Power is a measure of the rate of energy transfer

Unit b energy transformations

The formula used to calculate power is: producing electricity with nuclear energy?

power is measured in Watts (W)

energy is measured in Joules (J)

time is measured in seconds (s)

  • A generator produces 2 J of energy every second. How many watts of power does it produce?

Unit b energy transformations

Unit b energy transformations

Unit b energy transformations

Unit b energy transformations

6 4 efficiency and saving energy
6.4 – Efficiency and Saving Energy bulb use if it is left on for 2 hours?

  • Some devices are better than others at converting electrical energy into useful output energy

  • Which of these devices is more efficient at converting electricity into light? How do you know?

Energy efficient light bulbs
Energy Efficient Light Bulbs… bulb use if it is left on for 2 hours?

  • How are they made?

How it’s Made: Fluorescent Bulbs

How it’s Made: Incandescent Bulbs

NatGeo energy efficient bulbs

Unit b energy transformations

Unit b energy transformations

Unit b energy transformations

Chapter 7 1 energy for life
Chapter 7.1 – Energy for Life actually used to heat the water. What is the efficiency of the kettle?

  • Plants convert the Sun’s solar into chemical potential energy stored in glucose (sugar)

  • This is done through the process of photosynthesis

    solar  chemical potential

Unit b energy transformations

Unit b energy transformations

Unit b energy transformations

7 2 the need for energy
7.2 – The Need for Energy moves through an food chain

  • Our bodies area able to maintain a constant temperature through the process of homeostasis

  • If your body temperature drops:

    • Shivering burns sugar and produces heat

    • Blood is sent to core of the body to preserve heat

  • If your body temperature rises:

    • Blood is sent to skin to release extra heat to air

    • Perspiration transfers heat energy to the air

Unit b energy transformations

7 3 sources of energy
7.3 – Sources of Energy moves through an food chain

  • The main source of energy for humans is glucose, a simple carbohydrate

  • Glucose that is not immediately used by the body may be converted into glycogen for short term storage

  • Glycogen can be easily turned back into glucose

  • Glycogen that is not used is converted into fat for long-term storage

Unit b energy transformations

  • When your body needs to access energy: moves through an food chain

  • Glucose is immediately used

  • Glycogen is converted into glucose

  • Fat may be converted back into glucose

  • Muscle protein is converted into glucose

Unit b energy transformations

  • If all energy reserves have been depleted: moves through an food chain

    • Body will begin to convert muscle protein into energy

    • This occurs in cases of extreme malnutrition

  • Long term malnutrition results in permanent damage to body organs and structures

7 4 human energy needs change
7.4 – Human Energy Needs Change moves through an food chain

  • An individual’s metabolic rate depends on:

    • Age – developing babies and young children have a faster metabolism than adults

    • Time of day – metabolism is highest in the morning

    • Exercise – activity raises metabolism

    • Fitness level – large amounts of energy are required to stay in shape

8 1 what are fossil fuels
8.1 – What are Fossil Fuels? moves through an food chain

  • Fossil fuels are formed over millions of years from the remains of once living organisms

  • We can use the chemical potential energy that has been stored in fossil fuels

  • Common fossil fuels:

    • Coal

    • Crude oil

    • Natural gas

Unit b energy transformations

  • Fossil Fuels: moves through an food chain

    • are formed from the remains of one living organisms

    • require heat, pressure, and a long time to form

    • contains large amounts of chemical potential energy

How fossil fuels form

8 2 extracting coal and oil
8.2 – Extracting Coal and Oil moves through an food chain

  • Fossil fuels must be removed from the ground before they can be of use

  • Coal is quarried or mined, depending on depth

Unit b energy transformations

Locating Petroleum

Unit b energy transformations

Distillation to locate

  • Crude oil is oil that is extracted from the ground

  • Crude oil is refined into different products like:

    • gasoline

    • tar

    • motor oil

  • products are separated based on different boiling points

8 3 combustion
8.3 - Combustion to locate

  • Energy stored in fossil fuels is released during combustion

  • chemical potential  thermal

Unit b energy transformations

  • All fossil fuels are hydrocarbons to locate

  • They are made up of hydrogen and carbon

  • When hydrocarbons are combusted they release large amounts of heat and light energy

    CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy

  • When fossil fuels are combusted, CO2 and H2O are always produced

  • How is the process of cellular respiration similar to combusting a fossil fuel?

Unit b energy transformations

8 4 the other side of the coin
8.4 – The Other Side of the Coin use hydrocarbons as a fuel source

  • Because fossil fuels take millions of years to form, they are non-renewable

  • As global populations continue to increase, more people are competing for less oil

  • How is this cartoon related to oil?

Unit b energy transformations