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Table of Contents – pages iii. Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7: Plants Unit 8: Invertebrates Unit 9: Vertebrates Unit 10: The Human Body.

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Table of Contents – pages iii


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    1. Table of Contents – pages iii Unit 1:What is Biology? Unit 2:Ecology Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Unit 4:Genetics Unit 5:Change Through Time Unit 6:Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7:Plants Unit 8:Invertebrates Unit 9:Vertebrates Unit 10:The Human Body

    2. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1:Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2:Principles of Ecology Chapter 3:Communities and Biomes Chapter 4:Population Biology Chapter 5:Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Chapter 6:The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7:A View of the Cell Chapter 8:Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9:Energy in a Cell

    3. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10:Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11:DNA and Genes Chapter 12:Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13:Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14:The History of Life Chapter 15:The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16:Primate Evolution Chapter 17:Organizing Life’s Diversity

    4. Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18:Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19:Protists Chapter 20:Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21:What Is a Plant? Chapter 22:The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23:Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24:Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

    5. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25:What Is an Animal? Chapter 26:Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27:Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28:Arthropods Chapter 29:Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

    6. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30:Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31:Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32:Mammals Chapter 33:Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34:Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35:The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36:The Nervous System Chapter 37:Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38:Reproduction and Development Chapter 39:Immunity from Disease

    7. Unit Overview – pages 250-251 Genetics Mendel and Meiosis DNA and Genes Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Genetic Technology

    8. Chapter Contents – page vii Chapter 10Mendel and Meiosis 10.1:Mendel’s Laws of Heredity 10.1:Section Check 10.2:Meiosis 10.2:Section Check Chapter 10Summary Chapter 10Assessment

    9. Chapter Intro-page 252 What You’ll Learn You will identify the basic concepts of genetics. You will examine the process of meiosis.

    10. 10.1 Section Objectives – page 253 Section Objectives: • Relate Mendel’s two laws to the results he obtained in his experiments with garden peas. • Predict the possible offspring of a genetic cross by using a Punnett square.

    11. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Why Mendel Succeeded • It was not until the mid-nineteenth century that Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk, carried out important studies of heredity—the passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring. • Characteristics that are inherited are called traits.

    12. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Why Mendel Succeeded • Mendel was the first person to succeed in predicting how traits are transferred from one generation to the next. • A complete explanation requires the careful study of genetics—the branch of biology that studies heredity.

    13. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Mendel chose his subject carefully • Mendel chose to use the garden pea in his experiments for several reasons. • Garden pea plants reproduce sexually, which means that they produce male and female sex cells, called gametes.

    14. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Mendel chose his subject carefully • The male gamete forms in the pollen grain, which is produced in the male reproductive organ. • The female gamete forms in the female reproductive organ. • In a process called fertilization, the male gamete unites with the female gamete. • The resulting fertilized cell, called a zygote (ZI goht), then develops into a seed.

    15. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Mendel chose his subject carefully • The transfer of pollen grains from a male reproductive organ to a female reproductive organ in a plant is called pollination.

    16. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Mendel chose his subject carefully • When he wanted to breed, or cross, one plant with another, Mendel opened the petals of a flower and removed the male organs. Remove male parts

    17. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Mendel chose his subject carefully • He then dusted the female organ with pollen from the plant he wished to cross it with. Pollen grains Transfer pollen Female part Male parts Cross-pollination

    18. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Mendel chose his subject carefully • This process is called cross-pollination. • By using this technique, Mendel could be sure of the parents in his cross.

    19. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Mendel was a careful researcher • He studied only one trait at a time to control variables, and he analyzed his data mathematically. • The tall pea plants he worked with were from populations of plants that had been tall for many generations and had always produced tall offspring.

    20. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Mendel was a careful researcher • Such plants are said to be true breeding for tallness. • Likewise, the short plants he worked with were true breeding for shortness.

    21. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Mendel’s Monohybrid Crosses • A hybrid is the offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait, such as tall and short height. • Mendel’s first experiments are called monohybrid crosses because mono means “one” and the two parent plants differed from each other by a single trait—height.

    22. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The first generation • Mendel selected a six-foot-tall pea plant that came from a population of pea plants, all of which were over six feet tall. • He cross-pollinated this tall pea plant with pollen from a short pea plant. • All of the offspring grew to be as tall as the taller parent.

    23. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The second generation • Mendel allowed the tall plants in this first generation to self-pollinate. • After the seeds formed, he planted them and counted more than 1000 plants in this second generation. • Three-fourths of the plants were as tall as the tall plants in the parent and first generations.

    24. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The second generation P1 • One-fourth of the offspring were as short as the short plants in the parent generation. Short pea plant Tall pea plant F1 • In the second generation, tall and short plants occurred in a ratio of about three tall plants to one short plant. All tall pea plants F2 3 tall: 1 short

    25. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The second generation • The original parents, the true-breeding plants, are known as the P1 generation. • The offspring of the parent plants are known as the F1 generation. • When you cross two F1 plants with each other, their offspring are the F2 generation.

    26. The second generation Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Seed shape Flower color Pod color Seed color Flower position Pod shape Plant height Dominant trait axial (side) purple yellow round green tall inflated Recessive trait terminal (tips) green short white yellow wrinkled constricted

    27. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The second generation • In every case, he found that one trait of a pair seemed to disappear in the F1 generation, only to reappear unchanged in one-fourth of the F2 plants.

    28. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The rule of unit factors • Mendel concluded that each organism has two factors that control each of its traits. • We now know that these factors are genes and that they are located on chromosomes. • Genes exist in alternative forms. We call these different gene forms alleles.

    29. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The rule of unit factors • An organism’s two alleles are located on different copies of a chromosome—one inherited from the female parent and one from the male parent.

    30. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The rule of dominance • Mendel called the observed trait dominant and the trait that disappeared recessive. • Mendel concluded that the allele for tall plants is dominant to the allele for short plants.

    31. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The rule of dominance • When recording the results of crosses, it is customary to use the same letter for different alleles of the same gene. Short plant Tall plant t t T T t T F1 All tall plants t T

    32. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The rule of dominance • An uppercase letter is used for the dominant allele and a lowercase letter for the recessive allele. Short plant Tall plant t t T T t T F1 • The dominant allele is always written first. All tall plants t T

    33. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The law of segregation • The law of segregation states that every individual has two alleles of each gene and when gametes are produced, each gamete receives one of these alleles. • During fertilization, these gametes randomly pair to produce four combinations of alleles.

    34. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Phenotypes and Genotypes Law of segregation Tt´Tt cross • Two organisms can look alike but have different underlying allele combinations. F1 Tall plant Tall plant T t t T F2 Tall Tall Tall Short t t t t T T T T 3 1

    35. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Phenotypes and Genotypes • The way an organism looks and behaves is called its phenotype. • The allele combination an organism contains is known as its genotype. • An organism’s genotype can’t always be known by its phenotype.

    36. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Phenotypes and Genotypes • An organism is homozygous for a trait if its two alleles for the trait are the same. • The true-breeding tall plant that had two alleles for tallness (TT) would be homozygous for the trait of height.

    37. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Phenotypes and Genotypes • An organism is heterozygous for a trait if its two alleles for the trait differ from each other. • Therefore, the tall plant that had one allele for tallness and one allele for shortness (Tt) is heterozygous for the trait of height.

    38. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Mendel’s Dihybrid Crosses • Mendel performed another set of crosses in which he used peas that differed from each other in two traits rather than only one. • Such a cross involving two different traits is called a dihybrid cross.

    39. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The first generation • Mendel took true-breeding pea plants that had round yellow seeds (RRYY) and crossed them with true-breeding pea plants that had wrinkled green seeds (rryy). • He already knew the round-seeded trait was dominant to the wrinkled-seeded trait. • He also knew that yellow was dominant to green.

    40. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The first generation Dihybrid Cross round yellow x wrinkled green P1 Wrinkled green Round yellow All round yellow F1 F2 9 3 3 1 Round green Wrinkled yellow Round yellow Wrinkled green

    41. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The second generation • Mendel then let the F1 plants pollinate themselves. • He found some plants that produced round yellow seeds and others that produced wrinkled green seeds. • He also found some plants with round green seeds and others with wrinkled yellow seeds.

    42. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The second generation • He found they appeared in a definite ratio of phenotypes—9 round yellow: 3 round green: 3 wrinkled yellow: 1 wrinkled green.

    43. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 The law of independent assortment • Mendel’s second law states that genes for different traits—for example, seed shape and seed color—are inherited independently of each other. • This conclusion is known as the law of independent assortment.

    44. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Punnett Squares • In 1905, Reginald Punnett, an English biologist, devised a shorthand way of finding the expected proportions of possible genotypes in the offspring of a cross. • This method is called a Punnett square.

    45. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Punnett Squares • If you know the genotypes of the parents, you can use a Punnett square to predict the possible genotypes of their offspring.

    46. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Monohybrid crosses • A Punnett square for this cross is two boxes tall and two boxes wide because each parent can produce two kinds of gametes for this trait. Heterozygous tall parent T t T t T t T T TT Tt t t Tt tt T t Heterozygous tall parent

    47. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Monohybrid crosses • The two kinds of gametes from one parent are listed on top of the square, and the two kinds of gametes from the other parent are listed on the left side. Heterozygous tall parent T t T t T t T T TT Tt t t Tt tt T t Heterozygous tall parent

    48. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Monohybrid crosses • It doesn’t matter which set of gametes is on top and which is on the side. • Each box is filled in with the gametes above and to the left side of that box. You can see that each box then contains two alleles—one possible genotype. • After the genotypes have been determined, you can determine the phenotypes.

    49. Section 10.1 Summary – pages 253-262 Punnett Square of Dihybrid Cross Dihybrid crosses Gametes from RrYy parent Ry RY rY ry • A Punnett square for a dihybrid cross will need to be four boxes on each side for a total of 16 boxes. RRYy RRYY RrYY RrYy RY RRYy RRYy RrYy Rryy Ry Gametes from RrYy parent rrYy RrYY RrYy rrYY rY RrYy rrYy Rryy rryy ry