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Table of Contents – pages iii. Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7: Plants Unit 8: Invertebrates Unit 9: Vertebrates Unit 10: The Human Body.

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table of contents pages iii
Table of Contents – pages iii

Unit 1:What is Biology?

Unit 2:Ecology

Unit 3:The Life of a Cell

Unit 4:Genetics

Unit 5:Change Through Time

Unit 6:Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi

Unit 7:Plants

Unit 8:Invertebrates

Unit 9:Vertebrates

Unit 10:The Human Body

table of contents pages vii xiii
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

Unit 1: What is Biology?

Chapter 1:Biology: The Study of Life

Unit 2: Ecology

Chapter 2:Principles of Ecology

Chapter 3:Communities and Biomes

Chapter 4:Population Biology

Chapter 5:Biological Diversity and Conservation

Unit 3:The Life of a Cell

Chapter 6:The Chemistry of Life

Chapter 7:A View of the Cell

Chapter 8:Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle

Chapter 9:Energy in a Cell

table of contents pages vii xiii1

Unit 4: Genetics

Chapter 10:Mendel and Meiosis

Chapter 11:DNA and Genes

Chapter 12:Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics

Chapter 13:Genetic Technology

Unit 5: Change Through Time

Chapter 14:The History of Life

Chapter 15:The Theory of Evolution

Chapter 16:Primate Evolution

Chapter 17:Organizing Life’s Diversity

Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii
table of contents pages vii xiii2

Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi

Chapter 18:Viruses and Bacteria

Chapter 19:Protists

Chapter 20:Fungi

Unit 7: Plants

Chapter 21:What Is a Plant?

Chapter 22:The Diversity of Plants

Chapter 23:Plant Structure and Function

Chapter 24:Reproduction in Plants

Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii
table of contents pages vii xiii3
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

Unit 8: Invertebrates

Chapter 25:What Is an Animal?

Chapter 26:Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and

Roundworms

Chapter 27:Mollusks and Segmented Worms

Chapter 28:Arthropods

Chapter 29:Echinoderms and Invertebrate

Chordates

table of contents pages vii xiii4
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

Unit 9: Vertebrates

Chapter 30:Fishes and Amphibians

Chapter 31:Reptiles and Birds

Chapter 32:Mammals

Chapter 33:Animal Behavior

Unit 10: The Human Body

Chapter 34:Protection, Support, and Locomotion

Chapter 35:The Digestive and Endocrine Systems

Chapter 36:The Nervous System

Chapter 37:Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion

Chapter 38:Reproduction and Development

Chapter 39:Immunity from Disease

unit overview pages 790 791
Unit Overview – pages 790-791

Vertebrates

Fishes and Amphibians

Reptiles and Birds

Mammals

Animal Behavior

chapter contents page xiii
Chapter Contents – page xiii

Chapter 33Animal Behavior

33.1:Innate Behavior

33.1:Section Check

33.2:Learned Behavior

33.2:Section Check

Chapter 33Summary

Chapter 33Assessment

chapter intro page 858
Chapter Intro-page 858

What You’ll Learn

You will distinguish between innate and learned behavior.

You will identify the adaptive value of specific types of behavior.

33 1 section objectives page 859
33.1 Section Objectives – page 859

Section Objectives:

  • Distinguish among the types of innate behavior.
  • Demonstrate, by example, the adaptive value of innate behavior.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 867
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

What is behavior?

  • Behavior is anything an animal does in response to a stimulus.
  • A stimulus is an environmental change that directly influences the activity of an organism.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 8671
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

What is behavior?

  • Animals carry on many activities—such as getting food, avoiding predators, caring for young, finding shelter, and attracting mates—that enable them to survive and reproduce.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 8672
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Inherited behavior

  • Inheritance plays an important role in the ways animals behave.
  • An animal’s genetic makeup determines how that animal reacts to certain stimuli.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 8673
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Natural selection favors certain behaviors

  • Often, a behavior exhibited by an animal species is the result of natural selection.
  • Individuals with behavior that makes them more successful at surviving and reproducing tend to produce more offspring than individuals without the behavior.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 8674
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Natural selection favors certain behaviors

  • These offspring will inherit the genetic basis for the successful behavior.
  • Inherited behavior of animals is called innate (ih NAYT) behavior.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 8675
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Natural selection favors certain behaviors

  • This toad captured its prey using an innate behavior is known as a fixed-action pattern.
  • A fixed-action pattern is an unchangeable behavior pattern that, once initiated, continues until completed.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 8676
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Genes form the basis of innate behavior

  • Through experiments, scientists have found that an animal’s hormonal balance and its nervous system affect how sensitive the individual is to certain stimuli.
  • Innate behavior includes fixed-action patterns, automatic responses, and instincts.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 8677
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Automatic Responses

  • A reflex (REE fleks) is a simple, automatic response to a stimulus that involves no conscious control.
  • A fight-or-flight response mobilizes the body for greater activity.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 8678
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Automatic Responses

  • Your body is being prepared to either fight or run from danger.
  • A fight-or-flight response is automatic and controlled by hormones and the nervous system.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 8679
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Instinctive Behavior

  • Some behaviors take a longer time because they involve more complex actions.
  • An instinct (IHN stingt) is a complex pattern of innate behavior.
  • Instinctive behavior begins when the animal recognizes a stimulus and continues until all parts of the behavior have been performed.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86710
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Instinctive Behavior

  • For example, greylag geese instinctively retrieve eggs that have rolled from the nest.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86711
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Courtship behavior ensures reproduction

  • Courtship behavior is the behavior that males and females of a species carry out before mating.
  • Like other instinctive behaviors, courtship has evolved through natural selection.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86712
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Courtship behavior ensures reproduction

  • Individuals often can recognize one another by the behavior patterns each performs.
  • In courtship, behavior ensures that members of the same species find each other and mate.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86713
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Courtship behavior ensures reproduction

  • In some spiders, the male is smaller than the female and risks the chance of being eaten if he approaches her.
  • Before mating, the male in some species presents the female with an object, such as an insect wrapped in a silk web.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86714
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Courtship behavior ensures reproduction

  • While the female is unwrapping and eating the insect, the male is able to mate with her without being attacked.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86715
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Territoriality reduces competition

  • A territory is a physical space an animal defends against other members of its species.
  • It may contain the animal’s breeding area, feeding area, and potential mates, or all three.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86716
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Territoriality reduces competition

  • Animals that have territories will defend their space by driving away other individuals of the same species.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86717
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Territoriality reduces competition

  • Although it may not appear so, setting up territories actually reduces conflicts, controls population growth, and provides for efficient use of environmental resources.
  • When animals space themselves out, they don’t compete for the same resources within a limited space.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86718
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Territoriality reduces competition

  • Pheromones are chemicals that communicate information among individuals of the same species.
  • Many animals produce pheromones to mark territorial boundaries.
  • One advantage of using pheromones is that they work both day and night, and whether or not the animal that made the mark is present.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86719
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Aggressive behavior threatens other animals

  • Aggressive behavior is used to intimidate another animal of the same species.
  • Animals fight or threaten one another in order to defend their young, their territory, or a resource such as food.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86720
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Aggressive behavior threatens other animals

  • Animals of the same species rarely fight to the death.
  • The fights are usually symbolic.
  • Why does aggressive behavior rarely result in serious injury? One answer is that the defeated individual shows signs of submission to the victor.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86721
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Aggressive behavior threatens other animals

  • These signs inhibit further aggression by the victor.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86722
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Submission leads to dominance hierarchies

  • In animals, usually the oldest or strongest wins the argument.
  • Sometimes, aggressive behavior among several individuals results in a grouping in which there are different levels of dominant and submissive animals.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86723
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Submission leads to dominance hierarchies

  • A dominance hierarchy (DAH muh nunts · HI rar kee) is a form of social ranking within a group in which some individuals are more subordinate than others.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86724
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Submission leads to dominance hierarchies

  • There might be several levels in the hierarchy, with individuals in each level subordinate to the one above.
  • The ability to form a dominance hierarchy is innate, but the position each animal assumes may be learned.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86725
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Submission leads to dominance hierarchies

  • The term pecking order comes from a dominance hierarchy that is formed by chickens.
  • The top-ranking chicken can peck any other chicken.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86726
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Submission leads to dominance hierarchies

  • The chicken lowest in the hierarchy is pecked at by all the other chickens in the group.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86727
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Behavior resulting from internal

and external cues

  • Some instinctive behavior is exhibited in animals in response to internal, biological rhythms.
  • A 24-hour, light-regulated, sleep/wake cycle of behavior is called a circadian (sur KAY dee uhn) rhythm.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86728
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Behavior resulting from internal

and external cues

  • Circadian rhythms keep you alert during the day and help you relax at night.
  • Circadian rhythms are controlled by genes, yet are also influenced by factors such as jet lag and shift work.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86729
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Behavior resulting from internal

and external cues

  • Rhythms also can occur on a yearly or seasonal cycle.
  • Migration, for example, occurs on a seasonal cycle. Migration is the instinctive, seasonal movement of animals.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86730
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Behavior resulting from internal

and external cues

  • Change in day length is thought to stimulate the onset of migration in the same way that it controls the flowering of plants.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86731
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Behavior resulting from internal

and external cues

  • Animals navigate in a variety of ways.
  • Some use the positions of the sun and stars to navigate.
  • They may use geographic clues, such as mountain ranges.
  • Some bird species seem to be guided by Earth’s magnetic field.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86732
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Behavior resulting from internal

and external cues

  • Young animals may learn when and where to migrate by following their parents.
  • How many animals cope with winter is another example of instinctive behavior.
  • Many mammals, some birds, and a few other types of animals go into a deep sleep during parts of the cold winter months.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86733
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Behavior resulting from internal

and external cues

  • This period of inactivity is called hibernation.
  • Hibernation (hi bur NAY shun) is a state in which the body temperature drops substantially, oxygen consumption decreases, and breathing rates decline to a few breaths per minute.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86734
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Behavior resulting from internal

and external cues

  • Hibernation conserves energy.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86735
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Behavior resulting from internal

and external cues

  • What happens to animals that live year-round in hot environments?
  • Estivation (es tuh VAY shun) is a state of reduced metabolism that occurs in animals living in conditions of intense heat.
  • Desert animals appear to estivate sometimes in response to lack of food or periods of drought.
section 33 1 summary pages 859 86736
Section 33.1 Summary – pages 859-867

Behavior resulting from internal

and external cues

  • Clearly, estivation is an innate behavior that depends on both internal and external cues.
section 1 check
Section 1 Check

Question 1

An earthworm will move away from light. What type of behavior is this an example of?

(TX Obj 2; 8C)

A. innate

B. courtship

C. learned

D. bioluminescence

section 1 check1
Section 1 Check

The answer is A. Innate behavior is inherited.

section 1 check2
Section 1 Check

Question 2

How is natural selection related to behavior?

(TX Obj 3; 7B)

Answer

Individuals with a behavior that makes them more successful at surviving and reproducing tend to produce more offspring. The offspring then inherit the genetic basis for the behavior.

section 1 check3
Section 1 Check

Question 3

What controls the fight or flight response that organisms experience when they are scared?

(TX Obj 2; 10A)

Answer

Genes contain the information for innate behaviors. An automatic response, such as the fight or flight response is controlled by hormones and the nervous system.

section 2 objectives page 868
Section 2 Objectives – page 868

Section Objectives

  • Distinguish among types of learned behavior.
  • Demonstrate, by example, types of learned behavior.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 873
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

What is learned behavior?

  • Learning, or learned behavior, takes place when behavior changes through practice or experience.
  • The more complex an animal’s brain, the more elaborate the patterns of its learned behavior.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 8732
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Kinds of Learned Behavior

  • Just as there are several types of innate behavior, there are several types of learned behavior.
  • Some learned behavior is simple and some is complex.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 8733
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Habituation: A simple form of learning

  • Habituation (huh bit choo AY shun) occurs when an animal is repeatedly given a stimulus that is not associated with any punishment or reward.
  • An animal has become habituated to a stimulus when it finally ceases to respond to the stimulus.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 8734
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Imprinting: A permanent attachment

  • Imprinting is a form of learning in which an animal, at a specific critical time of its life, forms a social attachment to another object.
  • Imprinting takes place only during a specific period of time in the animal’s life and is usually irreversible.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 8735
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Imprinting: A permanent attachment

  • In birds such as geese, imprinting takes place during the first day or two after hatching.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 8736
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Imprinting: A permanent attachment

  • A gosling rapidly learns to recognize and follow the first conspicuous moving object it sees.
  • Normally, that object is the gosling’s mother.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 8737
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Learning by trial and error

  • Trial-and-error learning occurs when an animal receives a reward for making a particular response.

Proper nest building is often the result of trial and error learning.

section 33 2 summary pages 868 8738
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Learning by trial and error

  • When an animal tries one solution and then another in the course of obtaining a reward it is learning by trial-and-error.

Proper nest building is often the result of trial and error learning.

section 33 2 summary pages 868 8739
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Learning by trial and error

  • Learning happens more quickly if there is a reason to learn or be successful.
  • Motivation is an internal need that causes an animal to act, and it is necessary for learning to take place.
  • In most animals, motivation often involves satisfying a physical need, such as hunger or thirst.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 87310
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Classical conditioning:

Learning by association

  • Classical conditioning is learning by association.
  • In the early 1900s, Ivan Pavlov, a Russian biologist, first demonstrated classical conditioning in dogs.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 87311
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Classical conditioning: Learning by association

section 33 2 summary pages 868 87312
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Insight: The most complex type of learning

  • Insight is learning in which an animal uses previous experience to respond to a new situation.
  • Much of human learning is based on insight.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 87313
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Insight: The most complex type of learning

  • Solving math problems is a daily instance of using insight.
  • Probably your first experience with mathematics was when you learned to count.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 87314
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Insight: The most complex type of learning

  • Years later, you continue to solve problems in mathematics based on your past experiences.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 87315
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

The Role of Communication

  • Communication is an exchange of information that results in a change of behavior.
  • Honeybees, for example, communicate the location of a food source using a dance.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 87316
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Most animals communicate

  • Animals have several channels of communication open to them. They signal each other by sounds, sights, touches, or smells.
  • Sounds such as songs, roars, and calls communicate a lot of information quickly.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 87317
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Most animals communicate

  • Signals that involve odors may be broadcast widely and carry a general message. Ants leave odor trails that are followed by other members of their nest.
  • These odors are species specific.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 87318
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Using both innate and learned behavior

  • Some communication is a combination of both innate and learned behavior.
  • In some species of songbirds males automatically sing when they reach sexual maturity.

Indigo bunting

section 33 2 summary pages 868 87319
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Using both innate and learned behavior

  • Their songs are specific to their species, and singing is innate behavior.

Indigo bunting

section 33 2 summary pages 868 87320
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Using both innate and learned behavior

  • Yet members of the same species that live in different regions learn different variations of the song.
  • In other species, birds raised in isolation never learn to sing their species song.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 87321
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Some animals use language

  • Language, the use of symbols to represent ideas, is present primarily in animals with complex nervous systems, memory, and insight.
section 33 2 summary pages 868 87322
Section 33.2 Summary – pages 868-873

Some animals use language

  • Humans, with the help of spoken and written language, can benefit from what other people and cultures have learned and don’t have to experience everything for themselves.
section 2 check

Comparison of Animal Behaviors

Section 2 Check

Question 1

According to the graph, what type of behavior do invertebrates primarily exhibit? (TX Obj 1; 2C)

Types of Behaviors

A. reasoning

B. learning

C. reflex

D. instinct

section 2 check1

Comparison of Animal Behaviors

Section 2 Check

The answer is C. Invertebrates primarily rely on reflex actions to survive.

Types of Behaviors

section 2 check2
Section 2 Check

Question 2

According to the graph, is the song sung by this sparrow a learned or innate behavior? Explain.

(TX Obj 1; 2C)

Bird’s Songs

Wild

sparrow

Sparrow

raised in

isolation

section 2 check3
Section 2 Check

The graph indicates that there is a difference in the song sung by the wild sparrow and the one raised in isolation, therefore the song must be a learned behavior.

Bird’s Songs

Wild

sparrow

Sparrow

raised in

isolation

section 2 check4
Section 2 Check

Question 3

The first time you rode a bicycle, you fell off. The next time, you were able to stay on and complete the ride. What type of learning is this an example of? (TX Obj 2; 8C)

A. habituation

B. imprinting

C. motivation

D. trial and error

The answer is D.

chapter summary 33 1
Chapter Summary – 33.1

Innate Behavior

  • Behavior is anything an animal does in response to a stimulus.
  • Many behaviors have adaptive value and are shaped by natural selection.
  • Innate behavior is inherited. Innate behaviors include fixed-action patterns, automatic responses and instincts.
chapter summary 33 11
Chapter Summary – 33.1

Innate Behavior

  • Automatic responses include reflexes and fight-or-flight responses.
  • An instinct is a complex pattern of innate behaviors.
chapter summary 33 12
Chapter Summary – 33.1

Innate Behavior

  • Behaviors such as courtship rituals, displays of aggressive behavior, territoriality, dominance hierarchies, hibernation, and migration are all forms of instinctive behavior.
  • Pecking order is an example of a dominance hierarchy.
chapter summary 33 2
Chapter Summary – 33.2

Learned Behavior

  • Learning takes place when behavior changes through practice or experience.
  • Learned behavior has adaptive value.
  • Learning includes habituation, imprinting, trial and error, and classical conditioning.
chapter summary 33 21
Chapter Summary – 33.2

Learned Behavior

  • The most complex type of learning is learning by insight.
  • Some animals use language, whereas most communicate by either visual, auditory, or chemical signals.
chapter assessment
Chapter Assessment

Question 1

A deer living in the city allows you to approach and feed it, what is this an example of?

(TX Obj 2; 8C)

A. habituation

B. imprinting

C. aggressive behavior

D. dominance hierarchy

chapter assessment1
Chapter Assessment

The answer is A. A deer normally would run from a human, but after living in the city, it has learned that humans will not harm it and are a source of food.

chapter assessment2
Chapter Assessment

Question 2

Why do members of the same species rarely fight to the death? (TX Obj 2; 8C)

Answer

It isn’t in the best interest of the animal to fight to the death. Most fights are symbolic and occur only to prove dominance between individuals.

chapter assessment3
Chapter Assessment

Question 3

What type of behavior does this map illustrate?

(TX Obj 1; 2C)

chapter assessment4
Chapter Assessment

The arrows on the map indicate that the butterflies are moving to the south. This is an example of a migration pattern.

chapter assessment5
Chapter Assessment

Question 4

How do organisms benefit from setting up territories? (TX Obj 2; 8C)

Answer

Territories reduce conflicts, control population growth, and provide for efficient use of environmental resources. This improves the chances of survival of the young, and therefore the species.

chapter assessment6
Chapter Assessment

Question 5

A mouse is placed at one end of a maze. Food is placed at the other end of the maze. What does the food represent? (TX Obj 2; 8C)

A. motivation

B. a balanced diet

C. insight

D. communication

chapter assessment7
Chapter Assessment

The answer is A. Food is the motivation used to make the mouse complete the maze.

chapter assessment8
Chapter Assessment

Question 6

What type of learning does this figure illustrate?

(TX Obj 2; 8C)

chapter assessment9
Chapter Assessment

Question 6

A. insight

C. classical conditioning

B. trial and error

D. habituation

chapter assessment10
Chapter Assessment

The answer is C, classical conditioning.

chapter assessment11
Chapter Assessment

Question 7

Honeybees perform a dance to tell other bees where a food source is. What type of behavior is this called?

(TX Obj 2; 8C)

A. aggressive behavior

B. communication

C. courtship

D. submission

chapter assessment12
Chapter Assessment

The answer is B, communication.

photo credits

Photo Credits

Photo Credits
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  • PhotoDisc
  • David M. Dennis
  • KS Studio
  • Roger K. Burnard  
  • Dave Menke/USFWS
  • Aaron Haupt  
  • Alton Biggs
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