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Space – The Final Frontier. Early astronomers. Astronomer - Astronomers use the principles of physics and mathematics to learn about the fundamental nature of the universe, including the sun, moon, planets, stars, ...

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early astronomers
Early astronomers
  • Astronomer - Astronomers use the principles of physics and mathematics to learn about the fundamental nature of the universe, including the sun, moon, planets, stars, ...
  • Nicholas Copernicus – (1473 – 1543) the first astronomer to teach that the sun (not the Earth) was the center of the solar system.
  • Galileo Galilei – built the first telescope in 1609 and proved Copernicus correct.
what is out there
What is out there?
  • Ever since mankind has looked up at the moon and stars, we have wandered about life in the universe.
how big is the universe
How big is the universe?
  • Billions of stars – planets – galaxies
what is the difference between a solar system galaxy and the universe
What is the difference between a solar system, galaxy, and the universe?
  • Solar System – our solar system includes our sun, moon, asteroid belt, and 9 planets
  • Our solar system is part of the Milky way Galaxy.
  • The universe is made up of many galaxies.
the universe
The Universe
  • We can observe only a portion of the entire universe. Because the universe is only about 14 billion years old, light has only had about 14 billion years to travel through it. Therefore, the most distant regions of the universe we can see are about 14 billion light-years away. This is the extent of the "observable universe," but the entire universe is probably much larger. It could even extend infinitely in all directions.
the name of our galaxy is
The name of our galaxy is:
  • The name of our galaxy is the Milky Way. Our Sun and all of the stars that you see at night belong to the Milky Way. When you go outside on a dark night and look up, you will see a milky, misty-looking band stretching across the sky. When you look at this band, you are looking into the densest parts of the Milky Way, the "disk" and the "bulge."
the milky way galaxy
The Milky way Galaxy
  • A galaxy is an enormous collection of gas, dust and billions of stars held together by gravity. One galaxy can have hundreds of billions of stars and be as large as 200,000 light years across.

Our solar system is located in the outer reaches of the Milky Way Galaxy, which is a spiral galaxy. The Milky Way Galaxy contains roughly 200 billion stars. Most of these stars are not visible from Earth. Almost everything that we can see in the sky belongs to the Milky Way Galaxy.

solar system
Solar System
  • The solar system consists of the Sun; the eight official planets, at least three "dwarf planets", more than 130 satellites of the planets, a large number of small bodies (the comets and asteroids), and the interplanetary medium. (There are probably also many more planetary satellites that have not yet been discovered.)
  • The inner solar system contains the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars:
  • The outer system contains Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
facts about earth
Facts About Earth
  • Distance from the sun - 93 million miles
  • Distance from the moon - 240,000 miles
  • Circumference - 25,000 miles
chuck yeager of wv
Chuck Yeager of WV
  • Chuck Yeager was born and raised in WV.
  • In 1947, Chuck Yeager drove the first plane to break the sound barrier.
  • US was ahead of the world in the space race.
          • But then………
space race begins
Space Race Begins
  • History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a basketball, weighed only 183 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path. That launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race.
  • The US thought they would be the first to successfully launch a satellite into space. They put together a scientific team and began working on Vanguard.
us vs russia
US vs Russia

The Sputnik launch changed everything. As a technical achievement, Sputnik caught the world's attention and the American public off-guard. Its size was more impressive than Vanguard's intended 3.5-pound payload. In addition, the public feared that the Soviets' ability to launch satellites also translated into the capability to launch ballistic missiles that could carry nuclear weapons from Europe to the U.S. Then the Soviets struck again; on November 3, Sputnik II was launched, carrying a much heavier payload, including a dog named Laika. 

explorer 1
Explorer 1
  • Explorer project – 4 months after Sputnik US sent Explorer 1 into space.
mariner project
Mariner Project
  • The Mariner Project was a series of US space probes build to provide information on the inner planets – Mercury, Venus, and Mars.
  • Mariner 2 launched in 1962.
  • Many embarrassing disasters on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral.
  • The Mariner Project was renamed


Voyager 1 launched from Kennedy Space Center September 1977. In 1980 it approached Saturn.

Voyager 2 launched from Cape Canaveral in 1977 also.

space probes satellites
Space Probes (Satellites)
  • Mariner
  • Viking 1 and 2 (summer 1976) 1st successful landing on mars. Designed to explore inner planets
  • Voyager 1 and 2 designed to explore outer planets
  • Galileo – 1989 – The 1st probe to orbit Jupiter and sent a smaller probe into it’s atmosphere. Launched from a space shuttle.
  • The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United Statesfederal government, responsible for the nation's public space program. Established on July 29, 1958, by the National Aeronautics and Space Act.
space centers
Space Centers

Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Mostly a manned spacecraft center. Established in 1965.

Kennedy Space Center – Cape Canaveral Florida. Mostly a satellite and shuttle center.

Other places include Mississippi.

manned space program

Manned Space Program

Mercury Program

mercury program
Mercury Program

The Mercury Program (1960 – 1962)

1st program to put an astronaut into space.


Mercury-Redstone 3FREEDOM 7May 5, 1961Alan B. Shepard, Jr.

15 minutes, 28 secondsSuborbital flight that successfully put the first American in space.

gemini program
Gemini Program
  • Was a manned space program to put 2 men into space – hence the name Gemini which means twin.
  • To subject man and equipment to space flight up to two weeks in duration.
  • To rendezvous and dock with orbiting vehicles and to maneuver the docked combination by using the target vehicle's propulsion system;
  • To perfect methods of entering the atmosphere and landing at a preselected point on land. Its goals were also met, with the exception of a land landing, which was cancelled in 1964.
the apollo program
The Apollo Program
  • Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by NASA, on behalf of the United States of America. The program used the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, and was conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. It was devoted to the goal (in U.S. PresidentJohn F. Kennedy's famous words) of "landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth" within the decade of the 1960s. This goal was achieved with the Apollo 11 mission in July 1969.
the us space shuttle
The US Space Shuttle
  • The US space shuttle was designed to be launched into space by rockets and then to return to the Earth’s surface by gliding down and landing on a runway. It was first used in the 1980’s.
  • It is the first reusable spacecraft.
shuttle missions
Shuttle Missions
  • Columbia, Challenger, Discovery and Atlantis. Challenger was destroyed on launch in 1986, and Endeavour was built as a replacement. Columbia was destroyed on re-entry in 2003.
the international space station
The International Space Station
  • A joint effort between 5 space agencies.
  • The agencies include the US, Russia, Japan, Canada, and Europe.
  • It orbits in low earth orbit.
  • The station has continuous people staying since it was first occupied in 2000.

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