New Orleans History By: Juan Ramirez
Establishment • Originally founded by the French Mississippi Company on May 7, 1718 to serve as a port. • Original name was Nouvelle-Orleans, named after the then Regent of France – Phillip II, the Duke of Orleans. • In 1722, it became the capital of French Louisiana, replacing Biloxi. That same year a hurricane hit, destroyed most of the city, hence the “director” of the city enforced a grid pattern, seen today in the French Quarter. • Mostly habited by deported galley-slaves (sentenced of crimes), trappers, gold-hunters, and other up to no good people.
Spanish Inquisition • After the Seven Years War, the treaty of Paris, (1763) France gave colonies west of the Mississippi to the Spanish who did nothing until 1766. French & German settlers forced the governor to flee in 1768. • Two great fires burned most of the city. • The Great NO Fire (1788) on March 21st 1788 where 856/1,100 structures burned. Started at Don Vicente Jose Nunez’s house. Most of the buildings in the French Quarter were burned. • The Great NO Fire (1794) on December 21st 1794, 212 structures destroyed. • Consequently most of the French architecture was eliminated from the French Quarter. • In 1795, the Spanish granted the US access to the port, then 1800 Louisiana was given back to France. • In 1800 Napoleon sold it to the US.
19th Century • From early days it was noted for its cosmopolitan population and mixture of cultures. The city grew rapidly, with influxes of Americans, African, French and Creole French (people of French descent born in the Americas) and Creoles of Color (people of mixed European and African ancestry). • By 1840s largest city in the south. • During Civil War, it was captured by the Union. • One of first with natural gas in a building, first steam cotton press around the 1830s. • 1897 Storyville was opened, became an attraction.
20th Century • 1917 DON ordered Storyville to close. • Baldwin Wood began ambitious plan, set up pumps, canals, outlets, leevees, etc to drain and keep the city dry, allowed the city to greatly expand. • Suburbs became popular and grew in the second half of the century. • 1923 the Industrial Canal opened, providing a direct shipping link between Lake Pontchartrain and the Mississippi River • 1965 MR GO was built, failure. (Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal).
21st Century • Katrina, August 29, 2005 • 1 million people obeyed and evacuated, 20% of population didn’t. • Canals and leevees were breached, failed caused major flooding after the storm. • 80% of the city was flooded, 25 ft in some areas. (same as 1909 hurricane but worse) • Blame the US Army Corps Of Engineers for the leevees and floodwalls failing. • City continues to rebuild. • Hosted the 2013 NFL Super Bowl. • That was marked by the power outage that interrupted for 34 minutes. • Power company blames the manufacturer of relays and vice versa.
Citations • http://www.gmc.edu/library/neworleans/NOhistory.htm • http://books.google.com/books?id=B19VDaHvj64C&pg=PA7&dq=population+orleans+1800+OR+1803&hl=en&ei=MjDDTY_iJqbiiALJhtGcAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CFQQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=population%20orleans%201800%20OR%201803&f=false • Images – Google image search and websites listed above.