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New Orleans

New Orleans

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New Orleans

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Presentation Transcript

  1. New Orleans The Inevitable City on an Impossible Site

  2. New Orleans – A City Unlike No Other • Rich French tradition • Abnormal slave/black laws • Culture blending • Food • Impossible site • Catholic influence

  3. Food • French, Spanish, Italian, Creole, African, Native American, and Cuban food mixture • Authentic “Louisiana” flavor

  4. Andouille • Mildly spiced Acadian sausage often used to flavor red beans and rice • Pronounced “an-du-EE”

  5. Beignet • Rectangular puff of fried dough sprinkled with powdered sugar, most famously served at Café du Monde in New Orleans

  6. Boudin • Spicy Cajun sausage containing rice and meat or seafood

  7. Chitlins • Short for “chitterlings.” Dish made from small intestines of hogs, cooked in butter and often served in vinegar, hot red pepper sauce, and minced red onions on the side.

  8. Gumbo • Any kind of thick soup with meat/seafood flavored with okra

  9. Jambalaya • Rice cooked with a mix of diced meat/fish in tomato sauce and other seasonings. One of Hank Williams Sr.’s most popular songs, 1952

  10. Mint Julep • South’s most famous and elegant cocktail. Served in a tall glass filled with crushed ice, bourbon, water, sugar, mint, and nutmeg

  11. Po’ Boy • Huge sandwich of French bread and any number of fillings such as ham, shrimp, roast beef, and meatballs; dressed with lettuce, tomato, etc.

  12. Mardi Gras • French phrase for Fat Tuesday • Describes parades/partying that occurs on last day before Lent

  13. “Wed to River and Ocean” • Almost natural dock for the transshipment of goods • Pierce Lewis: “inevitable city on an impossible site.“ • Miss. River Drainage

  14. Flow of the Mississippi • Brings silt, sand, clay, and organic matter from United States--Dumped at mouth of river • Islands form when big enough, river splits • Bedrock in NO is 70 feet beneath surface

  15. Difficulties • Continued dumping of silt has made river higher than New Orleans – 15-20 feet • Swampy, wet and sinking ground • Hot, humid and miserable weather • Hurricane threats

  16. Claims by the French • LaSalle claimed Louisiana for France • Colony needed on Mississippi for trade, control of continent • Indians advice: “Go upriver”

  17. The Problem • Mouth of river was unclear • 3 rough, undefined mouths • Shallow sandbars • Mud banks Burning Question for the French: Where to build a port city?

  18. Birth of a City • 150 miles upriver from Gulf of Mexico • Quickly became bustling port city • “Isle d’Orleans” • Oasis of civilization in hostile swamp

  19. Birth of a City • 1721 – First streets are laid • Streets named after Catholic saints/French monarchy • Bourbon Street named after Royal House Bourbon

  20. Thomas Jefferson on NO • "There is one spot on the globe, the possessor of which is our natural and habitual enemy. It is New Orleans."

  21. Transfer to Spanish Rule • After France lost French-Indian War in 1763, NO given to France • Two devastating fires prompt rebuilding • Many buildings today are Spanish, not French

  22. Purchase by America • 1803 – With Louisiana Purchase, Americans invade • Were not welcomed; many streets had been built to keep them out

  23. Blacks and the City • Many “free people of color” allowed • Slaves markets flourished • For slaves, city becomes sort of a haven/refuge

  24. Hurricane Katrinain New Orleans - What Went Wrong?

  25. New Orleans Overview • Many citizens live in extreme poverty • Much of NO is below sea level • Warned for years of devastating effects of hurricane

  26. Before the Storm • Mandatory Evacuation: Residents ordered to leave • Many stay behind… • …Claiming to be too poor and unable to leave

  27. Katrina – August 29, 2005 • Hurricane strikes at 6 AM • 140 MPH winds, 24 ft. storm surges • Trees uprooted, roofs blown off, power lines broken • At 6 PM, it’s over

  28. Points of View on Katrina • “Keep your head up from stuff flying around! It’s white-capping in the parking lot! Look at the debris! Look at that! The entire thing is coming apart! I feel real scared!” • CNN crew member during Katrina

  29. Points of View, cont. • Mr. President, we need your help. We need everything you’ve got.” • Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco in a phone call to the President

  30. People Out of Control • Looters smash windows of businesses, steal • Women/children robbed at gunpoint • Rapes and murders common

  31. Quote • “We went from the Space Age to the Stone Age in about three hours.” • Aaron Broussard, Jefferson Parish president

  32. FEMA • Federal Emergency Management Agency • Responsible for help/assistance with disasters

  33. Save Haven in Superdome? • 25,000+ transferred to Superdome after storm • Promised supplies from FEMA never arrive • Frustration grows

  34. President Bush Visits • Tours NO and Gulfport, MS • “Brownie, you’re doing a heckuva job.” - Bush to Michael Brown, director of FEMA • Calls for better communication between government agencies

  35. Communication Problems • FEMA, Louisiana government, other federal agencies clash • Red tape involved with approval to help, responsibilities, etc.

  36. Oil Prices Surge • Many refineries knocked out in Gulf Coast • Gas prices skyrocket to $3.39/gal. nationwide

  37. Frustration with FEMA • NO residents claim they were abandoned • Delay in supplies, broken promises • Racism claimed

  38. Aftermath • Brown resigns from FEMA • Many of 500,000 residents move to TX, OK, IL • Many will never return • NO struggles to build again

  39. Hurricane KatrinaThe 5 Ws and Now Satellite picture by NOAA

  40. Who… The people of… Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, & Louisiana 1.2 million evacuated 1,833 deaths 1.7 million without power New Orleans, La. August 30, 2005 Photo: Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA

  41. What… Hurricane Katrina -Category 3 -140 mph winds -rain - 1inch/hour -20 ft storm surge 80% of New Orleans under flood waters Photo: NASA

  42. When… Hit land in Florida on August 24, 2005 Hit New Orleans on August 29, 2005 Storm Surge on August 29-30, 2005 -Lake Ponchartrain and Mississippi River August 30, 2005 Photo by Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA

  43. Where… Mississippi and Louisiana New Orleans -metro area -Lakeview -St. Bernard Parish -9th ward Map by NASA