The New England Colonies • New Hampshire • Massachusetts • Rhode Island • Connecticut
New England Colonies Geographical, Political, Economic, Religious, and Social Aspects
New England Colonies “Why is New England, called New England?” • NEW territories of England, the “mother country”
Where is New England? • Located in the northeast region of the USA
New England Geography Jagged Coastlines Rocky Soil • Harsh winters • Short growing season Natural Harbors
New England Geography Life in the New England colonies was not easy! • subsistence farming- colonists produced just enough food for themselves.
New England Economy • Shipbuilding • Lumbering 2,500 trees = 1 ship
New England Economy • Whaling and Fishing • Fur Trading
Whale Oil Lamp • Whale oil illuminated the homes and businesses of colonial America
New England Economy • Three types of trade: • Trade with other colonies • Direct exchange of goods with Europe • Triangular Trade
men and women who would work for a specified period of time, usually several years, before gaining their freedom.
Dairy cattle, sheep and pigs • courtesy of the Columbian Exchange
New England Economy • Colonists made their own clothes and shoes.
New England Government • Town meetings- the act of a group of individuals gathering together to make decisions • Colonial Assemblies • Mayflower Compact, 1620 • F.O.C., 1636
New England Society • White Protestant society • Puritans • Pilgrims (separatists)
Recap Massachusetts • Colony: Plymouth • Founder: William Bradford • Year: 1620 • Reason: Religious freedom for Separatists
Separatists • (Pilgrims) wanting to break free from the Anglican Church or the Church of England.
Mayflower Compact, 1620 • The first step towards self-government in America.
Embarkation of the Pilgrims The prominence of women and children suggests the importance of the family in the community. Painting by Robert W. Weir (1844)
Massachusetts Bay Colony ”city upon a hill" • Colony: Massachusetts Bay • Founder: John Winthrop • Year: 1630 • Reason: Religious freedom for Puritans
What is a Puritan? • They wanted to change the Church of England. They did not want to separate from the Church like the Pilgrims. The Puritans wanted to make the Church of England more "pure."
Puritan Values • Puritans were demanding of their followers • Strong work ethic • Determination in the face of challenges
Rhode Island, 1636 • Founder: Roger Williams • Founding Year: 1636 • Reason for Founding: Religious freedom
Connecticut, 1639 “The Constitution State” • Thomas Hooker • Most settlers were Puritans
“Journeying through the Wilderness from Plymouth to Hartford, in 1636”- Frederic Edwin Church
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut 1639 • The first written constitution in America.
The Bigger Ideas • Each settlement is for a specific belief.
Checking for Understanding • What was the motivation, or reason, behind the development of the New England, colonies? • Profit and Trade • Religious Freedom • To find a Northwest Passage • None of the above BReligious Freedom
True or False • Disagreements over religious beliefs led to the formation of a number of new colonies. True
True or False • Roger Williams founded the colony of Connecticut False
True or False • The Protestant work ethic was important in all New England colonies. True
True or False • The economy of the American colonies depended on the geography of the region. True
The Middle Colonies Delaware New Jersey Pennsylvania New York Also known as the Mid-Atlantic Colonies
Mid-Atlantic Geography Rivers Fertile Soil • Atlantic Coast • Longer growing season
Mid-Atlantic Economy Diversified- having a variety • Industry • Ironworks • Shipbuilding Iron Ore Colonial Nails
Mid-Atlantic Economy Bread Basket Colonies Rye Wheat Oats Barley
Mid-Atlantic Economy • New York City and Philadelphia became important ports for trading.
Mid-Atlantic Society • Ethnically and religiously diverse Ethnic- large groups of people classed according to common racial, national, religious, linguistic, or cultural background Diverse- made up of distinct characteristics, qualities, or elements
Mid-Atlantic Society • People from: • Sweden • England • the Netherlands • France • Germany
Mid-Atlantic Society Religious Groups • Puritans • Quakers • Anglicans • Baptists • Catholics • Jews Religious Tolerance
Who were the Quakers? Quakers- Protestant branch in England The Quakers could not worship in England because they did not follow the Church of England.
Quaker Beliefs • Wouldn’t swear or take oaths • No clergy • Men and Women are equal • Pacifists • Treated Indians fairly • Against slavery
Religious Freedom and Tolerance Freedom of the Press Strong Courts Middle Colonies Government owned and controlled by one or more persons • Proprietary colony-
New York • Founder: • Year: • Reason for establishment:
Pennsylvania • Founder: William Penn • Year: • Reason for establishment:
William Penn • Member of the Quakers • Founded Pennsylvania