Objectives • Explore how English traditions influenced the development of colonial governments. • Analyze the economic relationship between England and its colonies. • Describe the influence of the Enlightenment and the Great Awakening on the 13 colonies.
Terms and People • Magna Carta –1215 document that limited the king’s ability to tax English nobles and that guaranteed due process and a right to trial • Parliament –English lawmaking body • English Bill of Rights – 1689 document guaranteeing a number of freedoms • habeas corpus – idea that no one could be held in prison without being charged with a specific crime • salutary neglect –a policy in which England allowed its colonies self-rule
mercantilism –economic policy under which a nation accumulates wealth by exporting more goods than it imports Navigation Acts – a series of trade laws enacted by Parliament in the mid-1600s Enlightenment – European intellectual movement during the 1600s and 1700s Benjamin Franklin – American colonist inspired by the Enlightenment, he was a printer, author, scientist, and inventor Great Awakening –a religious movement that occurred in the colonies in the mid-1700s Terms and People(continued)
How did English ideas about government and the economy influence life in the 13 colonies? The relationship between England and the American colonies was economically and culturally close. But in the 1700s, the distant colonies started to form their own ideas about their government and economy.
The English had a long tradition of self-government. In 1215, English nobles made King John accept a limitation to his taxation and guaranteed the right to a trial. The English Parliament became a two-house legislature composed of the House of Lords, an inherited position, and the House of Commons, elected by men with property. The English overthrew King James and installed William and Mary, who granted the English Bill of Rights.
Colonists were English subjects and self-ruling. The colonists believed that the English Bill of Rights applied to them, even though they lived in the colonies. • Under England’s policy of salutary neglect, the colonies enjoyed a long period of self-government and individual liberties.
The English Parliament passed trade laws called the Navigation Acts. The laws successfully regulated colonial trade to create great wealth and power for England in the 1600s.
Under the policy ofmercantilism,the English colonies exported raw materials only to England. In exchange, the colonies bought manufactured goods from England.
The new ideas of the Enlightenment in the 1600s and 1700s influenced Americans. • Enlightenment thinkers stressed scientific reasoning and natural laws. They believed that human reason could be applied to society and government. • Colonial leader Benjamin Franklin was inspired by the Enlightenment.
In the colonies, the development of democracy was influenced by • the English parliamentary tradition • the colonies having a long period of self-rule • the new ideas of the European Enlightenment • the Judeo-Christian religious influence on colonial people
Many colonists had immigrated for religious reasons. • Churches played a social role in colonial life. • Churches served as public places for reading government proclamations, holding elections, and posting new laws.
Preachers such as George Whitefield helped launch a new religious movement called theGreat Awakening. • Preachers traveled through the colonies and preached powerful, emotion-packed sermons. • Many people left their old established churches to join the movement and start new churches.
Participants in the Great Awakening came to realize that if they could select their own religion, they could also select their own government. The Great Awakening gave rise to a changing political awareness.