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Effective Teachers: Professional Skills and Abilities Chapter 12. Effective Teachers. Focus and Engage Students’ Attention Use Instructional Time Efficiently Conduct Interactive Instruction. Focusing and Engaging Students’ Attention. Establishing set Using variety.

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effective teachers
Effective Teachers
  • Focus and Engage Students’ Attention
  • Use Instructional Time Efficiently
  • Conduct Interactive Instruction
focusing and engaging students attention
Focusing and Engaging Students’ Attention
  • Establishing set
  • Using variety
focusing and engaging students attention1
Focusing and Engaging Students’ Attention
  • Establishing set (providing a context for the lesson and the instruction)
    • Set induction
    • Orientation set
    • Evaluative set
beginning the lesson
Beginning the Lesson

4 Goals of Establishing

an Effective Set

4 goals
4 Goals
  • Introduce topic in a way that makes it novel, interesting or relevant
  • Establish an interactive climate and tone
  • Direct learners’ attention to important aspects of the content or communicate objectives
  • Link lesson with what students already know
using variety
Using Variety
  • Instructional Activities and Materials
  • Interacting with Students
  • Interfacing with Students
using instructional time efficiently
Using Instructional Time Efficiently
  • Optimizing time
  • Maintaining momentum
  • Making smooth transitions
using instructional time efficiently1
Using Instructional Time Efficiently
  • Optimizing time
    • Time on task
    • Mandated time
    • Allocated time
    • Academic instruction time
    • Academic learning time
academic learning time
Academic Learning Time
  • “Engaged time”
  • Two factors are considered
    • Amount of time a given student is actively engaged in the instruction/learning process
    • Student’s success at the activity
improving use of time
Improving Use of Time
  • Use all time available for instruction rather than other tasks
  • Begin and end on time
  • Have materials, equipment, and activities planned & ready
  • Enforce rules requiring students to be on time and prepared
improving use of time cont
Improving Use of Time cont.
  • Monitor
  • Plan more than needed
  • Establish signals for the end of the lesson
  • Establish routines
  • Give directions clearly
conducting interactive instruction
Conducting Interactive Instruction

How to Ask Questions

  • Require students to process and compose
  • Avoid rhetorical questions
  • Ask only one question at a time
  • Consider the type of question or level of thought required of students
    • Divergent/convergent
    • Content/process
obtaining good answers
Obtaining Good Answers
  • Wait time
    • Pause between the teacher’s question and the student’s response
    • Pause between the student’s response and the teacher’s reaction
  • Ensure equal distribution of answers
  • Probing
  • Redirecting
  • Rephrasing
providing clear instruction
Providing Clear Instruction
  • Clear teachers emphasize important points by:
    • Repeating them
    • Writing them on the board
    • Pausing after stating them
    • Reviewing them
instructional clarity
Instructional Clarity
  • Preparing and entering the lesson
  • Introducing and emphasizing content
  • Elaborating on important ideas or concepts
  • Monitoring students’ understanding and remediating when students fail to understand
monitoring students progress
Monitoring Students’ Progress
  • Monitoring can be:
    • Formal
    • Informal
improving monitoring
Improving Monitoring
  • Moving around the room
  • Maximizing interactive, whole-group interaction
  • Using good questioning techniques
    • Calling on all students
    • Spending little time at your desk

or with one student

providing feedback and reinforcement
Providing Feedback and Reinforcement
  • Effective feedback includes:
    • The criteria used to evaluate performance
    • How the student’s performance relates to the standard
providing feedback and reinforcement1
Providing Feedback and Reinforcement
  • More effective feedback
    • Provide as frequently as possible
    • Provide as soon after performance as possible
    • Make as specific as possible
providing feedback and reinforcement cont
Providing Feedback and Reinforcement cont.
  • Focus on the quality of the performance rather than intentions or motivations
  • Allow students to assume responsibility for assessing their own progress