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Effective and Creative Advertising Messages

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  1. CHAPTER8 Effective and Creative Advertising Messages © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage LearningAll rights reserved.

  2. Chapter ObjectivesAfter reading this chapter you should be able to: • Appreciate the factors that promote effective, creative, and “sticky” advertising. • Describe the features of a creative brief. • Explain alternative creative styles of advertising messages. • Understand the concept of means-end chains and their role in advertising strategy. • Appreciate the MECCAS model and its role in guiding message formulation. • Recognize the role of corporate image and issue advertising. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8–2

  3. Creating Effective Advertising Meaning of Effective Advertising Accomplishment (Output Perspective) Composition(Input Perspective) © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  4. Takes the Consumer’s View Extends from Sound Marketing Strategy Doesn’t Overwhelm the Strategy Delivers on Its Promises Breaks through the Clutter Effective Advertising © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  5. Creativity: The CAN Elements The CAN Elements of Creative Ads Connectedness Appropriateness Novelty © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  6. Getting Messages to “Stick” • Characteristics of Sticky Ads • Their audience readily comprehends the advertiser’s intended message • They are remembered • They change the target audience’s brand-related opinions or behavior • They have lasting impact: they stick © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  7. Sticky Messages: SUCCESs Unexpectedness Simplicity Concreteness Common Elements of Sticky Ads Storytelling Emotionality Credibility © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  8. Figure 8.1 Illustrations of the Aflac Advertising Campaign with the “Spokesduck.” © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  9. Advertising Successes and Mistakes • Value Proposition • Is the essence of a message and the reward to the consumer for investing his or her time attending to an advertisement • The reward could be information about the product or just an enjoyable experience • Research indicates that starting with a strong selling proposition substantially increases the odds of creating effective advertisements © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  10. Figure 8.2 Combination of Message Convincingness and Execution Quality © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  11. Advertising Successes and Mistakes (cont’d) Successful Campaigns Result from both the brand management team and the creative team having done their work well Marketing Mistakes Occur when the brand manager fails to distinguish the brand from competitive offerings Agency Mistakes Result from the ad agency’s inability to design an effective execution, even though its brand management client has a convincing message Complete Disasters Are caused by poor value propositions and mediocre executions © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  12. Constructing a Creative Brief © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternative Styles of Creative Advertising • Functionally Oriented Advertising • Appeals to consumers’ needs for tangible, physical, and concrete benefits • Symbolically or Experientially Oriented Advertising • Is directed at psychosocial needs • Category-Dominance Advertising • Does not necessarily use any particular type of appeal to consumers but is designed to achieve an advantage over competitors in the same product category © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  14. Table 8.1 Styles of Creative Advertising © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  15. Creative Advertising Styles © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  16. Figure 8.3 Illustration of Resonance Creative Strategy © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  17. Figure 8.4 Illustration of EmotionalCreative Strategy © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  18. Section Summary • An advertiser might use two or more styles simultaneously. • Some experts believe that advertising is most effective when it addresses both functional product and symbolic benefits. • Effective advertising must establish a clear meaning of what the brand is and how it compares to competitive offerings. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  19. Means-End Chaining and the Method of Laddering as Guides to Creative Advertising Formulation • Means-End Chain • Represents the linkages among brand attributes, the consequences obtained from using the brand and “consuming” the attributes, and the personal values that the consequences reinforce © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  20. Means-End Chain • Attributes • Features or aspects of advertised brands • Consequences • What consumers hope to receive (benefits) or avoid (detriments) when consuming brands • Values • Enduring beliefs people hold regarding what is important in life Brand attributes and the consequences of consuming these attributes are the means whereby people achieve valued ends © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  21. Table 8.2 Ten Universal Values © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  22. Table 8.3 A MECCAS* Model Conceptualization of Advertising Strategy * Means-End Conceptualization of Components for Advertising Strategy © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  23. Figure 8.5 MECCAS Illustration forSelf-Direction Value © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  24. Figure 8.6 MECCAS Illustration for Hedonism Value © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  25. Figure 8.7 MECCAS Illustration forAchievement Value © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  26. Figure 8.8 MECCAS Illustration forPower Value © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  27. Identifying Means-End Chains: The Method of Laddering • Laddering Research Technique • Is used to identify linkages between attributes (A), consequences (C), and values (V) • Constructs a hierarchy, or ladder, of relations between a brand’s attributes and consequences (the means) and consumer values (the end). • Attempts to get at the root or deep reasons why individual consumers buy certain products and brands © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  28. Practical Issues in Identifying Means-End Chains • The laddering method “forces” interviewees to identify hierarchies among attributes, consequences, and values that may actually not exist for them • Consumers may perceive clear-cut linkages between attributes and consequences but not necessarily between consequences and values • The resulting aggregations of A  C  V chains are assumed to represent all consumers in the target audience © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  29. Corporate Image and Issue Advertising • Corporate Image Advertising • Attempting to increase a firm’s name recognition, establish goodwill for the company and its products, or identify the firm with some meaningful and socially acceptable activity. • Corporate Issue (Advocacy) Advertising • Involves a firm taking a position on a controversial social issue of public importance with the intention of swaying public opinion. • Supports position and best interests of the firm while expressly or implicitly challenging an opponent’s position and denying the accuracy of their facts. © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  30. Figure 8.9 Illustration of Corporate Image Advertisement © 2010 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.