slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Background: Middle East PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Background: Middle East

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 32

Background: Middle East - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Background: Middle East. Geographic position at the junction Africa, Asia, and Europe. Background: Middle East. Origin of the 3 monotheistic religions Judaism, Christianity, and Islam largest reserves of petroleum in the world Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries non-Arab nations

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Background: Middle East' - riley-baldwin

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
background middle east
Background: Middle East
  • Geographic position at the junction
    • Africa, Asia, and Europe
background middle east1
Background: Middle East
  • Origin of the 3 monotheistic religions
    • Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
  • largest reserves of petroleum in the world
    • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
  • non-Arab nations
    • Turkey, Israel, and Iran
background islam
Background: Islam
  • 2nd largest religion in the world
    • some 1 billion adherents
    • from West Africa to Indonesia
    • most Muslims are outside of the Middle East
    • most Muslims are not Arabs
islam and muslim
Islam and Muslim
  • Islam literally means “submission” to God
  • Muslim literally means “one who submits”
  • recognize that there is only one God (Allah)
  • reject other gods or “associates” of God
  • His appointed messengers
    • Jesus and the Old Testament prophet
    • 7th century Arab prophet Muhammad
central tenet of islam
Central tenet of Islam
  • Muslim declaration of faith
    • “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His prophet”
    • e.g.: Saudi flag
muslim declaration of faith
Muslim Declaration of Faith
  • Flag of Iran
  • Flag of Iraq
  • “God is great”
the 5 pillars of islam
The 5 pillars of Islam
  • The Muslim declaration of faith
  • plus 4 ritual obligations that faithful Muslims perform to the best of their ability
the 5 pillars of islam1
The 5 pillars of Islam
  • plus 4 ritual obligations that faithful Muslims perform to the best of their ability
    • prayer 5 times a day, facing the holy shrine of Kaaba in Mecca
    • give alms to charity
    • fast in daylight hours in the month of Ramadan
    • make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in life
the koran qur an
The Koran (Qur’an)
  • written record of Muhammad’s revelations
  • said to be the exact word of God
  • a source of authority for religious truth
  • provide detailed rules by which the righteous can guide their daily lives with little dependence on the old sources of authority such as tribe and lineage
sunnis and shi is
Sunnis and Shi’is
  • 2 major branches of Islam
    • differ mostly over who should have succeeded the Prophet Muhammad in 632
  • Sunnis
    • literally mean “followers of tradition”
  • Shi’is
    • literally mean “partisans” of Ali
    • less than 10% of Muslims worldwide
british french rule 1800s
British & French rule: 1800s
  • Geopolitical rivalries instead of economic prizes
  • By 1950 most countries in Middle East had achieved independence
    • Syria and Lebanon gained independence from French rule during World War II
    • Iraq and Transjordan gained nominal independence from Britain’s indirect rule
    • British protectorate in Egypt ended
    • continued Western economic and strategic interests in the region
drive for self determination
Drive for self-determination
  • Direct European political control declined
    • Britain installed kings in Jordan and Iraq
  • economic dependence & independence
    • e.g. Iran’s attempt to nationalize British-owned petroleum company failed in 1951
    • e.g. O.P.E.C. quadrupled oil prices in 1973
cold war
Cold War
  • Superpower, regional, and internal struggles
    • influence of U.S. and Soviet Union
overthrow the monarchy
Overthrow the monarchy
  • Kings perceived to be pro-Western, corrupt, and ineffective were overthrown by nationalist revolutions
  • 1952 revolt of the Free Officers in Egypt
  • 1958 revolution in Iraq killed King & P.M.
  • 1979 revolution in Iran led by Khomeini
  • exceptions: Jordan and Saudi Arabia
arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
  • Physical, ethnic, religious, and cultural bridges across the national boundaries that were arbitrarily drawn by Europeans
  • pan-Arab movement
    • launched by Nasser of Egypt in 1958
    • proposed unification with Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Libya, and the Sudan at one time or another
    • governments suspected Nasser’s motives
egypt under nasser 1954 1970
Egypt under Nasser (1954-1970)
  • Arab nationalism & Arab socialism
  • Nasser’s particular vision of Arab socialism
    • socialism of secular Islam, not Marxist
    • nationalization of basic industries
    • elimination of foreign ownership
    • hospitals, mosques, and schools in villages
    • mass public participation in politics
egypt after nasser 1970
Egypt after Nasser (1970-)
  • Nasser’s successors
    • Sadat (-1981)
    • Mubarak
3 leadership styles
3 leadership styles
  • traditional leadership
    • legitimacy from historical forces and traditional practices
    • no substitute for effective policy
    • can not protect ineffective ruler forever
  • charismatic leadership
    • unique personal characters in a crisis
  • bureaucratic leadership
baath party
Baath Party
  • Arab Socialist Resurrection Party
  • Baath: to recover past Arab greatness
  • at once a political party, political philosophy, and political movement
  • ultimate goal of Arab unity through nationalism, socialism, and pan-Arabism
  • supporters among intellectuals and military of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Iraq
baathism in syria and iraq
Baathism in Syria and Iraq
  • Since 1963 Baath Party has successfully maintained itself in power in Syria
    • and until recently in Iraq
  • in Syria Baathist support came largely from the civilian sector
  • in Iraq Baathist power mainly in the military
baathism in syria and iraq1
Baathism in Syria and Iraq
  • both Syria and Iraq were in the forefront of supporting Palestinian organizations
  • In the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Syria lost the Golan Heights to Israel
baathism in syria and iraq2
Baathism in Syria and Iraq
  • Baathist regimes in Syria and Iraq
    • were often at head-on disputes
    • despite ostensible commitment to Arab unity
    • relatively long and potent nationalist feeling
  • Iraq and Syria split forcefully
    • during the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-1988
    • during the Gulf War of 1991
islam and politics
Islam and politics
  • Pan-Arabism, Baathism, and traditional systems all stressed the importance of Islam
  • common source of tradition and identity
  • Islam conceived of in politically secular terms
islam and politics1
Islam and politics
  • existence of Muslim society as desirable reality
  • reject the idea of an Islamic state based on the Koran and Islamic tradition
  • there are exceptions to the professed secularism