Unit 4 Important Dates • Your projects are due TOMORROW! • PRINT OUT AT HOME! • You need headphones on Thursday & Friday (June 3rd & 4th) • Unit 4 Test: Tuesday, June 8th
U.S. Interests in the Middle EastMaintaining access to the region’s oil Which percentage of the world’s oil reserves does the Middle East have?
U.S. Interests in the Middle EastResolving Israeli- Palestinian conflict
U.S. Interests in the Middle EastStrengthening ties with Arab allies (label on your map with a star) WHAT HAPPENED TO HIM??? Egypt Kuwait Saudi Arabia UAE Saudi Arabia Jordan Bahrain
Who are the 2 people here? What is the significance of an olive branch? What is the point of this cartoon?
U.S. Interests in the Middle EastCombating extremism and terrorism that fuel anti-Western views
Two Rival Branches of Islam Sunnis & Shiites (Shia)
The Divided Islamic World According to the map, where does it appear that most of the Shia Muslims reside?
Sunni vs. Shiite Muslims • 85-90% of Muslims are Sunni. • Only 10-15% are Shiite (Shia) • Shiites are the persecuted minority • Shiites make up majority in only four countries: • Iraq • Iran • Bahrain • Azerbaijan
CHECK OUT THE READING! Answer the following questions from the reading on Sunnis and Shi’ites: What is the difference in the origins of these branches of Islam? How different are these religions in practice? What makes the leadership of the two branches different? What are the differences in religious texts?
Power Shift: • The end of Saddam Hussein’s Sunni controlled government in Iraq left majority Shiite Iran in a far more powerful position. • Sunni Arab governments like Egypt and Saudi Arabia are concerned about the rise of Shiite power in the Middle East • Israel and the US are also concerned about the Shiite rise of power. Why? Who are our allies in the ME?
Can Iran Be Contained? By the U.S.? By Israel? By its Sunni neighbors?
Iraq’s Divided Population • Sunni Arabs • 20% • Shiite Arabs • 60% • Sunni Kurds • 17%
Iraq’s Sunni Arabs • 20% of Iraq’s population. • Sunni Baathists controlled the government under Saddam Hussein. • Lost power when U.S. invaded Iraq in 2003.
Iraq’s Shiite Arabs • 60% of Iraq’s population. • Harshly persecuted under Saddam Hussein. • Now control Iraq’s elected government. • Have developed close ties with Iran. Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki Iraqi Parliament
Iraq’s Sunni Kurds • 17% of Iraq’s population. • Sunni Muslims, but not Arabs. • Fairly liberal Muslims, the Kurds often wear Western-style clothes, and Kurdish women never hide their faces • Hated Saddam Hussein. Fought with U.S. against him. • Largely autonomous and want their own state.
Saddam’s Gassing of the Kurds, 1988 Saddam Hussein used chemical weapons against Kurdish villages in 1988. Several hundred thousand Kurds died in these gas attacks.
U.S. Invasion of Iraq 2003 Iraqi army easily defeated . Iraqi government collapsed. Saddam Hussein eventually captured, tried, and hanged by Iraq’s new government.
The Sunni Insurgency in Iraq • Violent Sunni insurgency began soon after the U.S. invaded Iraq. • Most were local Baathists: Iraqi Sunnis trying to regain power and reestablish Sunni- controlled government. • Many were former members of Iraqi military.
Al Qaeda in Iraq • A minority of Sunni insurgents are foreign jihadists – Islamic extremists who came to Iraq to fight jihad against the U.S. • “Al Qaeda in Iraq,” tied to al Qaeda and responsible for worst atrocities and attacks.
Iraq’s Sectarian Violence • Violence between Sunnis and Shiites. • Sunni jihadists targeted Shiite civilians in order to ignite civil war. • Shiite militia “death squads” retaliated by targeting Sunni civilians.
Shiite Extremists in Iraq • Many Shiite militias – some with close ties to Iran. • Mahdi Army – Radical Shitte group led by Moqtada al-Sadr (radical cleric). • Took up arms against coalition forces in 2004.
Why the Decline in Violence in Iraq During Second Half of 2007? • “The Surge” – Bush sent 30,000 more troops to Iraq. • Many Sunni insurgents persuaded to turn against foreign extremists. • Muqtada al Sadr declared cease-fire.
U.S. Withdrawal from Iraq • Obama following the same withdrawal schedule as Bush. • All U.S. combat troops withdrawn by the end of 2011. • Forces in peacekeeping role
Iraq After the U.S. Leaves What concerns about the future of Iraq does this graphic express?
The Arab-Israeli Conflict Video Overview of Conflict
Unit 4 Day 3 Thurs. June 3rd • Notes from “Arab-Israeli Conflict” until “Yasser Arafat: Terrorist or Freedom Fighter? • Part 1 of documentary, complete worksheet on pg. 21-22. • You can access the video 2 ways, in my Stu-Public folder and on my Wiki streamed from the internet. • Check “1967:Six Day War” article if I didn’t already • Last packets given out • HW: Bring headphones for tomorrow
The Zionist Movement • Movement to establish Jewish state in Palestine, the biblical homeland of the Jews. • European Jews emigrated to Palestine in large numbers following World War I, with support of League of Nations and the British government. • World’s support for creating Jewish state increased after World War II / Holocaust.
The Palestinians • Palestinians were the Arab inhabitants of Palestine. • Opposed creation of Jewish state in their homeland. • Violent conflicts broke out in Palestine between Arabs and Jews. Hundreds died.
1947 U.N. Partition Plan • U.N. partitioned British- controlled Palestine into Arab and Jewish states. • Jews accepted partition plan. • Arabs rejected it.