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Robert Kephart. ILC/SRF R&D. Outline. Fermilab ILC Goals Fermilab’s role in the GDE & the ILC machine design Main Linac design Accelerator physics Main Linac components (Cryomodule, RF components) ILC/SRF R&D and Infrastructure Cavity fabrication and processing Cavity test

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ilc srf r d
Robert Kephart


  • Fermilab ILC Goals
  • Fermilab’s role in the GDE & the ILC machine design
  • Main Linac design
    • Accelerator physics
    • Main Linac components (Cryomodule, RF components)
  • ILC/SRF R&D and Infrastructure
    • Cavity fabrication and processing
    • Cavity test
    • 3.9 GHz effort
    • Cryomodule fabrication and test
  • ILC Civil and Site Development
  • Industrialization
  • Resources
  • Summary of FY07 accomplishments
  • FY08 Goals
  • Conclusion

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

goals of fermilab s ilc r d
Goals of Fermilab’s ILC R&D

The overarching goals of Fermilab’s ILC R&D:

    • Establish credentials in ILC machine design
    • Develop proficiency in SRF technology
    • Become a trusted international partner

such that FNAL becomes the preferred site to host the ILC.

As part of the Global Design Effort (GDE) our goal is to help design the machine, estimate the cost, and gain international support.

  • Fermilab ILC R&D activities:
    • ILC Machine Design
    • Development of SRF technology & infrastructure
    • Conventional Facility & Site Studies for a US ILC site
    • Industrialization & Cost Reduction
    • ILC Physics, Detector Design, and Detector R&D (Marcel’s talk)

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

fnal s role in the gde
FNAL’s Role in the GDE
  • In FY07 the focus of the worldwide effort on the International Linear Collider (ILC) was to complete the Reference Design Report (RDR) and cost estimate
    • Draft delivered in Beijing in Feb 07 (Final in Korea in Aug)
  • Fermilab’s Role:
    • Large institutional contribution to this activity
    • Many FNAL physicists and engineers involved
    • Increased FNAL role via GDE leadership positions
  • Current Lab effort
    • 137 FTE on ILC machine design and SRF R&D and infra
    • 18 FTE on ILC Detector R&D
  • Growing engagement for Lab staff & User community
  • FNAL is poised to play an even larger role in the Engineering design of the ILC. Goal: EDR by 2010

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

fnal s role in the rdr edr
FNAL’s role in the RDR/EDR
  • Many FNAL Physicists and Engineers were in key RDR positions
  • ILC Machine “Area” Leaders (typically 3 Ldrs 1/region)
    • Civil and Site: Vic Kuchler = Americas Ldr
    • Main Linac Design: N. Solyak = 1 of 2 Americas Ldrs
    • Cryomodule: H. Carter = Americas Ldr
    • Cryogenics system: T. Peterson = Americas Ldr
    • Magnet systems: J. Tompkins = Americas Ldr
    • Communications: E. Clements = Americas Ldr
  • Design & Cost Board (coordinated RDR and cost estimate)
    • 9 member board: P Garbincius (chair), R. Kephart (member)
  • RDR Change Control Board (ILC baseline configuration control)
    • 9 member board S. Mishra = 1 of 3 U.S. Members
  • R&D Board (Oversight of ILC R&D program
    • 11 member board M. Ross (Member)
    • S0/S1/S2 task forces Ross, Nagaitsev, Kephart (Members)
  • FNAL Hosts the GDE central office(admin support, etc)
  • Nearly all have continuing roles in the Engineering Design organization
  • M Ross = 1 of 3 Project Managers , Jim Kerby = 1 of 3 lead engineers

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

ILC Machine Design
  • Accelerator physics:
    • Main Linac optics studies
    • End-to-end simulation of the machine
    • Study emittance preservation and vibration issues
    • RF timing and control issues
  • FNAL proposed the switch to a centrally sited circular Damping Ring vs. TESLA dog-bone DR
    • Less expensive, less risk, fits on FNAL site
    • Now the ILC baseline
  • Engineering Design of Main Linac technical systems
    • Cryogenics, RF, magnets, and controls systems
    • Auxiliary systems: water cooling, electrical, HVAC, etc
  • Design of key Main Linac components
    • Cryomodules, cavities, modulators, etc.
  • The ILC is based on Superconducting Radio Frequency technology. A major focus has and will be SRF R&D

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

srf goals
SRF Goals
  • Demonstrate the baseline ILC Main Linac technology
    • GDE S0: Cavity gradient of 35 MV/m; good yield
    • GDE S1: Cryomodules with average gradient > 31.5 MV/m
    • GDE S2: One or more ILC rf unit with ILC beam parameters
  • Key issue is variability in cavity performance
  • Develop FNAL expertise in SRF technology
    • Train FNAL staff
    • R&D to improve ILC performance, reduce cost
  • Collaborate with U.S. & International ILC partners
  • Transfer SRF technology to U.S. industry
  • Build FNAL SRF Infrastructure to support these activities
    • DOE Review of FNAL SRF Infrastructure Plan in Feb 07
    • Report favorable  proceeding with plan but at reduced funding

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

cavity cm process and testing
Cavity/CM process and Testing


Cavity Fabrication

Surface Processing

Vertical Testing



Horizontal Testing

HPR or reprocess

He Vessel, couplers, tuner


Cold String Assembly

Plan… Develop in labs then transfer technology to industry

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

scrf infrastructure
SCRF Infrastructure
  • High gradient cavities require extensive infrastructure
  • Bare cavities
    • Fabrication facilities ( e.g. Electron beam welders)
    • Buffered Chemical Polish facilities ( BCP )
    • Electro-polish facilities ( EP )
    • Ultra clean H20 & High Pressure Rinse systems
    • Vertical Test System ( Cryogenics + low power RF )
  • Cavity Dressing Facilities (cryostat, tuner, coupler)
    • Automatic welders, Class 10 clean room
    • Horizontal Test System ( cryo and high power pulsed RF )
  • String Assembly Facilities
    • Large class 100 clean rooms, Large fixtures
    • Class 10 enclosures for cavity inner connects
  • Cryomodule test facilities
    • Cryogenics, pulsed RF power, LLRF, controls, shielding, etc.
    • Beam tests  electron source (e.g. FNPL Photo-injector)
  • Lots of $ but reuse of existing FNAL infrastructure reduces costs

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

1 3ghz cavity fabrication
1.3GHz Cavity Fabrication
  • Goals:
    • Acquire cavities to study surface processing (Qualified Vendor)
    • Qualify U.S. cavity vendors to make ILC cavities
    • Build cryomodules to train staff and test improvements

Our progress depends on funding available to acquire cavities

  • Delivered cavities (using all sources available):
    • 4 from ACCEL (Processed and tested at Cornell, JLab)
    • 4 from AES (Processing at Jlab, one cavity now at FNAL)
    • 4 from Jlab ( 2 large grain, 2 fine grain)
  • Additional cavities ordered from ACCEL (Qualified Vendor)
    • For ILC surface processing studies and CM construction
    • 8 ordered in FY06, 12 more in FY07 (DESY orders 30-40 at a time!)
    • Ability to order cavities is funding limited ( $ ~80 K each )
  • U.S. Vendors (trying to get them qualified)
    • FY07: Ordered single cell cavities from AES, Roark, Niowave
    • 6 additional nine-cells on order from AES

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

fnal cavities infrastructure
FNAL Cavities Infrastructure

Cavity Tuning

bead pull

IB4 RF lab

ACCEL Cavity

800 C Bake IB4

Vacuum Oven

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

U.S. Cavity Processing & Test

Cavity Fabrication

By Industry



@ Cornell






@ Jlab




Vertical Testing

@ Jlab

Vertical Testing

@ Cornell

Vertical Testing


ILC R&D goals

require new large


facility ~ 100/yr


Cavity Dressing &

Horizontal Testing

@ Fermilab


R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

ep and vertical test @ jlab
EP and Vertical Test @ Jlab
  • FNAL collaborates closely with Jlab on cavity processing
  • Jlab modified existing infrastructure for Electropolish, High Pressure Rinse, and Vertical Test of ILC cavities
    • Capable of > 40 process and test cycles/yr
    • Completed 32 in FY07

EP and Vertical

Test at TJNL

Quench at ~ 42 MV/M

but back down to ~32 MV/M

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

EP & Vertical Test: Cornell

Vertical test

Vertical EP



( High Pressure Rinse)

ACCEL cavity EP Processed

& tested at Cornell

Limited by

[email protected] 30 MV/M

  • New vertical EP R&D infrastructure
  • HPR & Vertical Test of ILC cavities
  • 3 ACCEL cavities processed # 5, 8, 9
  • 8 process and test cycles in FY07
  • Gradients achieved 24-30 MV/M
  • Limited by quench

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

cavity process vts results
Cavity Process & VTS Results



ACCEL (Europe)

AES (U.S.)

Most cavities, esp. U.S. cavities are limited by Quench vs. FE

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

new anl fnal processing facility
New ANL-FNAL Processing Facility

Chemistry, Clean rooms, BCP,HPR & state-of-the-art EP @ANL

New Clean Rooms

1st EP Aug 07

Single cell

New Chemistry Rooms & EP

Operational ~ Dec 07 ~ 50 EP cycles/yr

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

new vertical test @ fnal
New Vertical Test @ FNAL

Nine-cell Tesla-style cavity

  • Recently commissioned (IB1)
    • Existing [email protected] 1.8 K Cryogenic plant
    • RF system in collaboration with Jlab
    • Capable of testing ~50 Cavities/yr
    • Evolutionary upgrades:
      • Thermometry for 9-cells, 2 cavities at a time, 2 top plates, Cryo upgrades
      • Plan for two additional VTS cryostats
    • Ultimate capacity ~ 264 cavity tests/yr

Plan for 2 more

VTS pits

VTS Cryostat:IB1

New RF & Control Room

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

horizontal test system
Horizontal Test System
  • Dressed cavities are tested with pulsed RF power
  • 300 KW klystron & modulator complete and tested
  • Extensive MDB cryo modifications 100 W @ 1.8 K
  • HTS currently cold & being commissioned with 1st cavity
  • Serves as test bed for LLRF, tuner & coupler studies
  • Unique capability in Americas: Goal 24 cavity tests/yr

1st 1.3 GHz Cavity in HTS Cryostat

HTS Cryostat

Installed at MDB

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

mdb infrastructure
MDB Infrastructure

Cryogenics transfer lines in MDB

300 KW RF Power for HTS

RF Power for HTS

Capture Cavity-II

Large Vacuum Pump for 2K

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

desy collaboration
DESY Collaboration
  • FNAL is building a 3.9 GHz 3rd Harmonic module for DESY
    • Doubles light output of VUV-FEL
    • Uses four 9 cell 3.9 GHz cavities
    • Five cavities have been fabricated and have achieved gradient > 20 MV/M gradient (Spec is > 13 MV/M)
    • Serves as a pilot program for much of our ILC SCRF infrastructure (processing, vertical and horizontal test, cryomodule assembly, etc.)
    • Expect to deliver the 3.9 GHz module to DESY in early 2008
  • DESY and INFN have supplied Fermilab with all the parts for one 1.3 GHz (TTF 3+) TESLA cryomodule
    • Will be the 1st ILC type cryomodule built in the U.S.
    • More on this in a minute

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

ilc cryomodule
ILC Cryomodule

Cryomodules are complex

  • Cavities made from pure Nb
  • Smooth & ultra clean surfaces
  • Cavity handling is crucial
  • Operate in 2K superfluid He
  • 1200 parts!

Cryomodules are expensive

  • Single most expensive component of the ILC
  • Must industrialize cavities, components, and maybe assembly
  • Developing the extensive infrastructure to build and test CM’s
  • FNAL leads an international team working to improve the TESLA CM design for ILC (DESY, INFN, KEK, CERN, SLAC, India, etc )
  • Plan to have an improved ILC design ready for bids by Mar 08

TTF Cryomodule

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

ilc type iv design
ILC Type IV Design



In Mar 08

2K Header

and support







2K He




R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

cryomodule assembly facility
Cryomodule Assembly Facility
  • Goal: Assemble R&D Cryomodules
  • Where: MP9 and ICB buildings
    • MP9: 2500 ft2 clean room, Class 10/100
    • Cavity dressing and string assembly
    • ICB: final cryomodule assembly
  • Infrastructure:
    • Clean Rooms, Assembly Fixtures
    • Clean Vacuum, gas, water & Leak Check
  • DESY Cryomodule “kit” being assembled now

ICB clean: Final

Assembly fixtures installed

Cavity string for 1st CM

String Assembly

MP9 Clean Room

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

cryomodule plan
Cryomodule Plan
  • 1st Cryomodule (2007)
    • Assemble a TESLA TTF type III CM from DESY “kit”
    • Cavities built and fully tested by DESY
  • 2nd Cryomodule (2008)
    • Also TTF type III cryomodule
    • Cavities are processed and tested in the US
    • Electropolished and tested at JLAB, Cornell, and ANL/FNAL
    • Cryostat and cold mass from Zanon in Europe
  • 3rd Cryomodule (2009)
    • 1st type IV ILC cryomodule built anywhere
    • Parts built in U.S. industry
  • 4th-6th Cryomodules (2010-11)
    • Build ILC RF unit in U.S.
    • Transfer knowledge gained to Industry
  • Develop, build & test basic building blocks of the Main Linac to evaluate main linac cost and reliability issues

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

rf unit test facility ilcta nm
RF Unit Test Facility (ILCTA_NM)
  • Overall Plan
    • Build an ILC RF Unit Test Facility at New Muon Lab Building (NML)
      • One ILC RF Unit (3 Cryomodules)
      • 10-MW RF System
      • ILC-like Beam (3.2 nC/bunch @3 MHz, Up to 3000 bunches @ 5Hz, 300-μm rms bunch length)
  • Phase-1 (FY07 - FY08)
    • Prepare Facility for Testing of First Cryomodule (CM1) without Beam
      • Infrastructure, RF Power, controls
      • Cryogenics (Refrigerator #1) => reuse of existing TeV refrigerator
  • Phase-2 & 3 (FY08 - FY10)
    • Install Gun, Injector, CM2 and CM3, Test with Beam
      • New RF Gun
      • Move A0 Photo-Injector to NML and Install Test Beamlines
      • Extend Building to fit Third Cryomodule
      • Cryogenics (Refrigerator #2 (existing) and New [email protected])
      • Upgrade RF System to 10 MW
  • FY11 and beyond run ILC RF unit with full ILC parameters

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

ilcta nm layout

72 M

~ 22 M

Existing Building

New ILC like tunnel

ILC RF unit



3rd har

2nd ILC RF unit


Bunch Compressor


Test Area

New Building

Test Areas

RF Equipment

  • 40-50 MeV Injector: well characterized beam
  • Low energy test area (e.g. 3.9 GHz Crab cavities)
  • Twin tunnel design to allow 2nd RF unit and to study tunnel layout and maintenance issues
  • New bldg for diagnostics & AARD
  • Also houses new cryo plant

new 300 W cryo plant

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

current picture of nml facility
Current Picture of NML Facility

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

refrigeration controls etc
Refrigeration/controls, etc
  • Cryogenic System
    • Installed Gas Storage Tanks
    • Refrigerator #1 ([email protected])
      • Installation complete
      • 1st LHe last week !
    • Cryo Distribution System
      • Feed Can, Feed Cap, End Cap

(in procurement stage)

  • Control Room being Installed
  • Instrumentation
    • Wire Position Monitors for CM1
    • Faraday Cup Fabrication
    • RF Protection System
  • Lots of progress… but…
  • Concern: 300 W refrigerator is expensive + 2yr lead time item… cannot order in FY08 or FY09 ?

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

ilc civil and site development
ILC Civil and Site Development
  • With the GDE we are developing the ILC Civil Design
    • Tunnel Design and Layout
    • Convention Facilities design
    • Cost and Schedule studies
  • FY08: FNAL site specific design
    • Optimal use of the large FNAL site
    • Minimize cost and community impact
    • Studies of actual machine layout
      • Geological, environmental, land use, & community issues
    • Bring in large outside A&E firms to consult

~31 km

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

  • Principle goal of ILC industrialization is to establish in U.S. industry the capability and infrastructure to mass produce the components for the ILC
    • Another important goal is cost reduction
  • FY07 Activities:
    • Encourage & support the LCFOA (meetings, etc)
    • Industrial cost estimates in support of the RDR
    • Development of U.S. Cavity vendors ( AES, Roark, Niowave )
    • Development of Industrial Electropolishing ( ABLE)
    • Purchase of couplers from CPI, etc.
  • FY08:
    • Qualify Industry for cavities & CM parts production
    • Qualify new U.S. vendors of high purity Nb
    • Engage U.S. A&E firms in FNAL site development
    • Value engineering, RF equipment purchases, etc
  • In the spring I charged a group to create an overall IC Industrialize plan (Ldrs: Garbincius, Mishra). Preliminary report in Oct, final Jan 08
  • Our ability to engage U.S. industry is limited by available funding, our own expertise, our SRF R&D and test facilities, and industrial level of interest

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

resources with overheads
Resources (with overheads)
  • FY08: ILC + SRF growth is 1.9% < inflation
  • FY09 is better at 26% growth but still below FNAL’s understanding with OHEP
    • Pier: ILC line at ~ $34 M; all $ 35 M of the SRF line to FNAL
    • Note: The discrepancy in the SRF line may be because planned funds to SLAC, MSU, LANL are not included. However, even assuming these funds we are still missing ~ $3-4M
    • At least $ 7M less in FY09 than we expected

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

resources direct
Resources ( Direct)







Note: 05-07 FTE numbers are from actual effort reporting vs. SWF averages

  • FY08 is ~ flat in terms of workforce and M&S
  • Disappointing: Does not allow us to build and operate needed SRF infrastructure in a timely way (NML refrigerator, EBW, CPF)
  • Stagnation of Detector R&D effort instead of FNAL leading LOI’s
  • Modest growth foreseen in FY09 guidance…but….
  • We should all understand that these numbers are far short of those needed to support an early (~ 2012 ) start of ILC

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

detector r d funding
Detector R&D funding
  • The ILC detector R&D effort at the lab has nearly doubled each year. Funding in FY08 will be ~ flat.
  • Community calls for LOI's by the end of 2008
  • As candidate lab to bid to host, we have the ambition to play a leading role in the preparation of the LOI's.
  • FNAL established several core competencies, highly regarded by the world community; need to grow these
  • Many technologies for ILC detectors are novel and have to have system level tests.
  • We provide funding to operate the test beam and provide infrastructure for these tests.
  • The Projected FY08 detector budget is not compatible with our ambition and the goals of the WWS.

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

summary fy07 accomplishments
Summary: FY07 Accomplishments
  • Large contribution to GDE RDR and cost estimate
  • Completed Meson Detector Bldg 1.8 K cryogenic system
  • 1st operation of the Capture Cavity II at high gradient (31 MV/M)
  • With Jlab & Cornell
    • processed & tested the first >30 MV/ M cavities in the U.S.
  • With ANL:
    • Completed new joint ANL/FNAL cavity processing facility
  • Completion and first operation of a Vertical Test Stand in IB1
  • Completion and first operation of a Horizontal Test Stand in MDB
  • Completed Phase I: Cryomodule Assembly Facility (MP9 & IB1)
  • Started assembly of the 1st U.S. built cryomodule in CAF
    • TTF type III CM from DESY “kit” of parts
  • Excellent progress on a 3.9 GHz Cryomodule for DESY
  • Started construction of RF unit test facility at NML
  • Initiated & led a world wide collaboration on SRF materials

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

summary fy07 accomplishments36
Summary: FY07 Accomplishments
  • Conventional Facilities Development
    • Major contributions to ILC CFS design
    • Led the U.S. site specific design effort
  • Signed MOU’s with 15 national/international ILC institutions
    • Many on SRF development
  • Outreach
    • Community Task Force, envoy program, single page handouts, web site, etc.
    • Host GDE, ILC, industrialization, ILC schools, and SRF meetings
  • Illinois
    • Working with Illinois Dept of Commerce and Economic Development
    • The Illinois Accelerator Research Center, a new $ 35 M FNAL building dedicated to education, SRF development & industrialization is in Illinois capitol bill that awaits passage
  • Program Management
    • Extensive financial tracking tools in place for ILC/SRF effort
    • Started to develop EDR schedules and trackable R&D milestones

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

  • In FY07 made major contributions to the RDR
    • Large role in GDE, machine design, and engineering
  • Significant progress on FNAL SRF infrastructure
    • Many new facilities turning on in FY07
  • But… pace of progress is limited by funds
    • Key long term items are not adequately funded (new NML refrigerator, EBW, new large cavity processing facility, Detector R&D etc)
  • Developing extensive collaborative connections with the goal of becoming a trusted international partner
  • Extensive CFS work in progress to develop ILC design and study FNAL as a possible ILC host site
  • Growing staff involvement and outreach efforts
  • Expect FNAL to play a large role in the EDR

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review

fy08 goals and milestones
FY08 Goals and Milestones
  • Major contributions to the EDR effort
  • Continue to expand collaborative work on ILC/SRF
  • Complete Commissioning VTS & HTS Oct 07
  • New HPR system complete at ANL Dec 07
  • 1st 9-cell operation of ANL EP system Jan 08
  • Process & test ~ 25 cavities @ Jlab, Cornell, ANL/FNAL
  • New 9-cell thermometry system for VTS Jan 08
  • Start move of A0 Photoinjector to NML Feb 08
  • Type IV CM parts out for bid Mar 08
  • Ship 3.9 GHz CM to DESY Apr 08
  • Finish design FNAL processing facility Jun 08
  • Operation of 1st CM in NML Aug 08
  • Increased effort on industrialization

R.D. Kephart DOE Annual Review