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ILC Test Facilities. Sergei Nagaitsev Fermilab. International Linear Collider. New energy frontier machine proposed for HEP Parameters Electron-Positron Collider E cm adjustable from 200 – 500 GeV Luminosity  ∫ Ldt = 500 fb -1 in 4 years Energy stability and precision below 0.1%

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ilc test facilities

ILC Test Facilities

Sergei Nagaitsev


international linear collider
International Linear Collider

New energy frontier machine proposed for HEP


  • Electron-Positron Collider
  • Ecm adjustable from 200 – 500 GeV
  • Luminosity ∫Ldt = 500 fb-1 in 4 years
  • Energy stability and precision below 0.1%
  • Electron polarization of at least 80%
  • The machine must be upgradeable to 1 TeV
  • The ILC is based upon a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) linacs of unprecedented scope ( length=23 km, 1680 Cryomodules, 14,560 SRF cavities, 31.5 MV/m)

~30 km

ilc ml beam parameters
ILC ML Beam Parameters

Average beam power is 11 MW / beam  wall plug to beam

efficiency is crucial  Superconducting RF


ML basic building block

ILC RF Unit: 3 CM, klystron, modulator, LLRF

Baseline design now has 2 CM with 9 cavities, 1 CM with 8 cavities + quad

issues for ilc linac
Issues for ILC linac
  • Key issues for ILC Physics
    • Machine Energy, Luminosity, Availability
  • Technical Challenges
    • Achieving high gradient in SRF cavities with a reproducible process
    • Building cryomodules with these cavities that meet ILC specification
    • Developing a reliable and efficient RF power source
    • Transport and focus beams at the IP
    • Industrialization of high volume components
    • Cost !
  • The Global Design Effort is addressing these challenges via a worldwide R&D program with specific goals (see M. Ross’ talk)
  • Key to achieving these goals are evolving ILC Test Facilities, the subject of this talk

Task Forces

  • S0/S1 – Cavity and cryomodule
  • S2 – RF unit system tests
  • S3 – Damping Rings
  • S4 – Beam Delivery System
  • S5 – Positron Source
  • S6 – Controls and LLRF
  • S7 – RF sources

Major International Test Facilities

  • Damping Rings
    • ATF, CESR-TA, KEKB, PEP-ii
    • S3: Electron cloud; ions; low emittance; kickers
  • Main Linac
    • FLASH, XFEL, STF, ILC-TA, ESA, Zeuthen
      • Rf unit; heat loads; HOM’s; LLRF; rf sources
    • S2, S6, S7
  • BDS
    • ATF2, ESA
      • S4: FFS & MDI design; Small spot tuning
cavity and cryomodule goals
Cavity and Cryomodule Goals
  • The GDE has established project wide R&D goals for ILC cavities and cryomodules
  • S0 goal: Establish a process & controls to reliably achieve 35 MV/M in bare cavity tests (80% yield)
  • S1 goal: Complete an ILC Cryomodule with all cavities at working at accelerating gradients >31.5 MV/M (Average)
scrf infrastructure
SCRF Infrastructure
  • Bare cavities
    • Fabrication facilities (Electron beam welder, QC, etc)
    • Surface treatment facilities BCP & Electro-polish facilities (EP)
    • Ultra clean H20 & High Pressure Rinse systems
    • Vertical Test facilities ( Cryogenics + low power RF)
  • Cavity Dressing Facilities ( cryostat, tuner, coupler)
    • Class 10/100 clean room
    • Horizontal Test System (cryogenics and pulsed RF power)
  • String Assembly Facilities
    • Large class 10/100 clean rooms, Large fixtures
  • Cryo-module test facilities
    • Cryogenics, pulsed RF power, LLRF, controls, shielding, etc.
    • Beam tests  electron source (RF unit test facilities)
cavity cm process and testing
Cavity/CM process and Testing


Cavity Fabrication

Surface Processing

Vertical Testing



Horizontal Testing

HPR or reprocess

He Vessel, couplers, tuner


Cold String Assembly

Plan… Develop in labs then transfer technology to industry

damping rings
Damping Rings
  • The ATF at KEK has or will demonstrate many/most of the outstanding issues
    • Low emittance operation
    • Intra-beam scattering
    • Ion instabilities
    • Instrumentation development
  • Main outstanding issue is the electron cloud
    • Studies at PEP-II, KEKB, and CESR
  • Very international program
atf prototype damping ring14
ATF Prototype Damping Ring
  • Ongoing effort with effort from SLAC, FNAL, Cornell, and LBNL
    • ATF has been operating since 1997
    • Low emittance beams at 1.3 GeV
    • Many opportunities:
      • Instrumentation and feedback development
      • Tuning studies
      • Ion instabilities
      • Kicker system demonstrations
    • Large SLAC involvement since 1992
    • Big UK effort with FNAL and Cornell
electron cloud studies
Electron Cloud Studies
  • Experimental programs at PEP-II and KEKB
    • Driven by ILC and Luminosity-factories
    • Extensive benchmarking of codes
    • Studies of cloud suppression techniques in dedicated vacuum chambers
      • Coatings and grooves
      • Understanding cloud generation
    • No plans for a system test which would need rebuilding the vacuum systems
      • System tests at CERN and Frascati
kek b and pep ii
  • Separate problem: calculate instability threshold and electron cloud generation
    • Experiments aimed at latter: quantifying techniques to suppress the cloud generation

PEP-ii Chamber tests

KEK-B E-cloud Tests

PEP-ii Sample test

cesr ta
  • CESR-TA would be a dedicated DR test facility
    • Positron beams  testtechniques to suppresselectron cloudgeneration
    • Study effect in wigglers whereexpected to bemost important
  • Needs further consideration
linac test facilities
Linac Test Facilities
  • S0/S1 is coordinating the cavity development
  • S2 provided advice on Linac System Tests
    • Regional programs: STF, ILCTA-NML, FLASH
    • Scoped at the 1 to 2 rf unit level
    • XFEL will also demonstrate many systems level issues
  • Plans for rf systems tests
    • ESA and Zeuthen
s2 questions
S2 Questions
  • Single rf unit tests:
    • Check what gradient spread can be handled by the LLRF system.
    • Check for heating due to high frequency HOMs.
    • Check amplitude and phase stability of the RF with respect to the beam.
    • Check static and dynamic heat loads
  • Other tests:
    • Beam dynamics cannot be tested reasonably
    • Statistical effects like reliability and dark current are hard
desy r d activities
DESY R&D Activities


The TESLA collaboration centered at DESY developed the SRF technology adopted for ILC. DESY is the world leader

  • Cavity R&D
    • 9 cell TESLA shape (baseline for ILC)
    • Electropolishing development
    • Large grain Nb, hydroformed
  • Cryomodule and RF power Development
  • TTFII/Flash ~ RF unit test facility for XFEL
  • Industrialization of SRF technology
ttfii flash xfel desy


    • TTFII: was originally a test facility for TESLA (ILC)
    • TTFII SRF linac now drives VUV-FEL (FLASH) providing light for BES users
    • Machine time still available as ILC test facility
  • XFEL (European Project)
    • Recently approved for construction at DESY
    • 20 GeV SRF linac driven light source
  • DESY Facilities (ramping up in support of XFEL)
    • Cavity fabrication, processing, test facility upgrades
    • Cryomodule fabrication  industrial training for XFEL
flash overview


Accelerating Structures



Bunch Compressor

Bunch Compressor

Photon user


5 MeV

127 MeV

370 MeV

700 MeV


250 m

FLASH Overview


RF gun


performance of recent cm 7
Performance of Recent CM #7


  • Recent CM experience
    • CM 6 had 5 cavities over 30 MV/M ( but 2 went down WRT HTS)
    • CM 7 had 6 of 8 cavities above 30 MV/M ( encouraging)
ttfii flash


  • ILC related performance:
    • Operations: 13% unscheduled down time (mostly RF sys)
    • Phase stability:0.14o of 1.3 GHz or 300 fs
    • dE/E = 2.4 10-4measured at 127 MeV
  • Plans:
    • Add 6th CM, beam energy  1 GeV/c
    • Improve electron gun (reduce dark current)
    • Add 3rd harmonic CM (FNAL), doubles FEL light output
  • FLASH operations, ILC studies, Construct XFEL !!!
    • ~30% of time is available for Accel dev and ILC R&D
stf asia
STF (Asia)


  • Superconducting Test Facility (STF)
    • Location: KEK, Japan
    • Purpose: General SRF test facility in support of the ILC
    • Status: Under construction
  • Facilities
    • Cavity fabrication, processing, test
    • ILC module fabrication
    • ILC module test facility
    • Plan: Evolve into RF unit test facility

STF Facility



Control Room

Klystron Gallery

Clean Rooms

EP Facility

Cryomodule Assembly


stf r d activities asia
STF R&D Activities ( Asia)


  • Cavity R&D
    • 9 cell TESLA shape (baseline for ILC)
    • 9 cell Ichiro cavities (goal = higher Eacc)
    • Seamless cavities (hydroformed)
    • Single cell EP R&D
  • Cryomodule & RF Power development
  • ILC RF unit test facility
  • Industrialization of SRF technology
cavity r d at kek
Cavity R&D at KEK


  • 4 Tesla Shape cavities
  • Processed and vertical tested
  • 3 cavities achieved ~20 MV/m
  • 1 achieved 30 MV/m, installed in CM
  • Performance limited by field emission
  • 4 Ichiro cavities
  • Reentrant design lowers B at fixed Eacc
  • Single cells: 6 examples all > 40 MV/M
  • But… so far 9 cells are only 12-20 MV/M
  • Limited by multipacting in end groups
  • End groups removed1 achieved 29 MV/M
  • One 19 MV/m Ichiro cavity installed in CM



stf plan
STF Plan


  • Phase 1 (2005-07) Develop SRF cavities & infrastructure
    • Two types of cavities: TESLA and Ichiro (35  45 MV/m)
    • Start with two 4 M cryostats (access to STF tunnel)
    • 1 cavity in each short cryostat Now !
    • 4 cavities in each short cryostat Sep 2007
    • Improved cavities Apr 2008
  • Phase 2 (2008 – 10) DevelopILC Main Linac RF unit
    • Built Cryomodule test facility
    • CM Fabrication 2009-10
    • Build RF power test infrastructure now-2010
    • RF unit test 2011
  • In parallel with phase 1,2
    • GDE S0 task force (demonstrate 35 MV/M gradient)
    • Industrialization
plan of stf phase 2 beam line
Plan of STF Phase 2 beam line





  • Phase 2 Beam ( 2011)
    • 2 SC beam capture cavities
    • RF gun, ( collab with FNAL)
    • Bunch charge, structure, and current similar to ILC

Existing Short Cryomodules

r d activities americas
R&D Activities (Americas)
  • Cavity R&D
    • 9 cell TESLA shape (baseline for ILC)
    • Large grain Nb (TJNL, FNAL)
    • Electropolishing (Cornell, TJNL, ANL/FNAL)
  • Cryomodule design & fabrication (FNAL)
  • RF power development (SLAC)
  • ILC RF unit test facility (FNAL)
  • Industrialization just starting
u s cavity r d national effort
U.S. Cavity R&D = National effort




Several cavities

> 30 MV/m in vertical test

Vertical EP

ANL/FNAL Collaboration

FNAL: New Vertical Test Facility

TESTED 1st cavity on 07/24/07

ANL: New clean rooms,

state-of-the-art EP

vctf in industrial building 1
VCTF in Industrial Building 1



Existing IB1 cryoplant/infrastructure

for Magnet Test Facility (MTF)

  • Significant cost savings & faster implementation
    • Current replacement value ~$10M
  • Knowledgeable technical staff
    • 4 cryogenic magnet test stands FY06: tested 29 superconducting magnets
    • 3 conventional magnet test stands FY06: tested 21 conventional magnets
    • Cryogenic engineering, data acquisition systems, diagnostic instrumentation, software and data management, etc.
  • Continue to share cryogenic system and IB1 infrastructure with magnet test program
    • Cryogenically demanding LHC magnet production tests are finished
vts cryostat insert design
VTS Cryostat/Insert Design

Based on Fermilab design of DESY/TTF/VTS

Added phase separator for better quality He

80K shields

Top plate insert


vacuum vessel f=42”

thermal baffles

5K shield

radiation shielding



heat exchanger

phase separator

helium vessel 26.5”

radiation shielding

fiberglass pit liner


Cryostat manufactured by PHPK Technologies, Columbus OH

cryostat photos
Cryostat photos

September 2006: Cryostat ordered

January 2007: He vessel ASME code stamped

February 2007: Received at Fermilab

March 2007: Temporarily installed

April 2007: Permanently installed

May 2007: Cryogenic Safety Review

May 2007: First cold test and commissioning

July 24, 2007: First single-cell cavity tested!!!




horizontal test system fnal
Horizontal Test System (FNAL)
  • After vertical test extensive cavity handling ensues
    • Cavity welded inside He vessel
    • Cavity opened to install main coupler
    • Tuner added
  • Horizontal Test
    • First test of the cavity with high pulsed RF power
    • R&D Test bed: tuners (slow), couplers, LLRF, etc.
  • NEW HTS facility is nearly complete at FNAL


HTS Cryostat

1.3 GHz Cavity in HTS Cryostat

RF Power for HTS

ilcta fnal
  • ILC RF unit test facility
  • Location: Fermilab “New Muon Building” (NML)
  • Goal: Address the GDE “S2 Goals”
    • Demonstrate a complete ILC RF unit with ILC-like beam
    • Also crab-cavity R&D, diagnostics development, personnel training, and advanced accelerator R&D.
  • ILC-like beam
    • 3.2 nC/bunch @3 MHz
    • Up to 3000 bunches @ 5Hz
    • Bunch length: 300-μm rms
    • Injector Energy: 30-40 MeV (to avoid over focusing in ILC CM)
    • To understand CM need “known” beam parameters @ CMentrance and exit good diagnostics


New Muon Lab

ilcta nm fnal

72 M

~ 22 M


Existing Building

New ILC like tunnel

ILC RF unit



3rd har

2nd ILC RF unit


Bunch Compressor


Test Area

New Building

Test Areas

RF Equipment

  • 40-50 Mev Injector
  • Well characterized beam
  • Low energy test area (e.g. 3.9 GHz Crab cavities)
  • New bldg for diagnostics & AARD
  • Also houses new large cryo plant

new 300 W cryo plant

stage 1 1 st cm early cy08
Stage 1: 1st CM (early CY08)

A used 3 MW Klystron,

10 MW, 1.5 ms modulator

CC2 RF system

Capture cavity 2 in its final location for the injector

Type 3+ cryomodule

a0 photo injector
A0 Photo Injector
  • The A0 Photo Injector built in collaboration with DESY as part of the TESLA collaboration ( essentially a copy of TTFI)
  • In operation since late 90’s
  • Two klystron-based RF systems power the RF Gun & Capture Cavity
  • Built a second capture cavity (CCII) using high gradient DESY cavity
  • A0 RF assets and CCII will be moved to NML in 2008

RF Gun prior to

solenoid installation

Capture Cavity and beamline

Capture Cavity-II

ilcta plans
  • Effort is Funding limited phased approach
  • Cryomodule delivery
    • 1st (Type 3+) cryomodule built from “kit” of DESY parts in late 2007
    • 2nd (Type 3+) CM – 2008 built with U.S. processed cavities
    • 3rd (ILC Type 4) CM – 2009 all U.S. components
    • Replace all three CMs with ILC Type 4+ in FY2010
  • FY07: Start as a Cryomodule Test Stand
  • FY08: move A0 photoinjector, start civil construction for new bldg
  • FY09: 1st beam operation, 2-3 CM, low rep rate operations
  • FY10: replace all 3 CM with ILC type CM
  • FY11: install new refrigerator, ILC RF Unit operations
  • Collaboration: DESY, INFN, ANL, Cockroft, NIU, Rochester, KEK
ilcta nml@fnal

Cavities for 1st


NML: June 07

NML Building

1st of 2 refrigerators

each 60 W@1.8K

Parts for 1st CM


FNAL Clean Room

& CM assembly Area


A facility to test ILC baseline and alternative designs

  • Many groups in the US and world-wide are looking for a place to test their ILC-related designs.
    • Need beam at 200-800 MeV, need space to set up tests
  • Baseline design:
    • “Keep alive” positron source (ANL)
    • SC undulator (Cornell)
    • Crab-cavity (SLAC, Cockcroft Inst)
  • Alternative designs:
    • New HOM coupler design (MIT)

Cryomodule Test Stand

  • We know we will need it eventually. …Need by FY2011
  • Location yet undetermined
  • A 500 sq meters, 32m x 16m, building required. Includes some utility and access space
  • Much larger than a typical Fermilab magnet test stand due to the shielding cave
  • Comparable in scope to Stage-1 of NML
  • Motivations for cryomodule tests
    • Mechanical checks
    • Alignment of tubes, flanges, etc.
    • Leak checks of all volumes
    • Conditioning of main RF-couplers
    • Cryo load measurement, Q and Eacc
    • SC magnet power test
    • Dark current measurements

XFEL Module R&D Test Stand

From Yury Bozkho, Bernd Petersen (DESY)

slac esa rf test facility
SLAC ESA RF Test Facility

L-Band Test Stands: Existing (green), FY07-08 (blue), FY09 (yellow)





beam delivery system
Beam Delivery System
  • See Andrei Seryi’s talk tomorrow
    • The ATF2 at KEK will demonstrate many systems level issues in FFS (and others)
      • FFS optical solutions
      • Beam instrumentation
      • FFS tuning and beam line alignment
      • High availability power supplies
      • SC quadrupoles
    • The ESA is used to study MDI issues
      • Collimator wakefields
      • IR diagnostics and signals
atf2 at kek
  • Demonstrations of:
    • Optics design
    • RF BPMs
    • Magnets and movers
    • HA power supplies

ILC like optics at ATF-2

New final focus

end station a at slac
End Station A at SLAC

3 runs thus farexpect 3 morethrough FY08

Schedule beyondFY08 is not clear

Collimator design, wakefields (T-480)

BPM energy spectrometer (T-474)

Synch Stripe energy spectrometer (T-475)

IP BPMs, kickers

EMI (electro-magnetic interference)

IR Mockup

  • The International Linear Collider will employ an SRF linac of unprecedented scope
  • Cavities & Cryomodules are cost drivers for ILC
  • There are many issues to be addressed to demonstrate the required performance for ILC
  • All three regions have mounted large R&D programs to explore these issues
  • Extensive infrastructure is needed to support this R&D and ILC industrialization
  • Large scale RF unit test facilities are a key
  • Lots of progress & ambitious plans