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AP Bio Mid-Term Review Solomon Text: Chapters 1-16, 18-21 PowerPoint Presentation
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AP Bio Mid-Term Review Solomon Text: Chapters 1-16, 18-21
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  1. AP Bio Mid-Term ReviewSolomon Text:Chapters 1-16, 18-21 Ms. Burakiewicz 2009

  2. Biochemistry • Water properties! • Functional groups • Carbohydrates • Mono, di, poly-saccarides • Lipids • Triglycerides: glycerol & 3 fatty acids • Ester bonds • Proteins • Amino acids, peptide bonds • Levels of structure • 1- aa chiain • 2- alpha helix, beta pleated sheet, • 3- interactions of side groups (H-bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic, di-sulfide bridges-s) • 4- • Enzymes

  3. Reactions • Hydrolysis • Catabolic (breaks down), exergonic (releases energy in broken bonds) • Dehydration Synthesis • Anabolic (building), endergonic (stores energy in bonds that form) • Enzyme • Catalysts • Lowers activation energy • Allosteric regulation • Denaturation, Temp, pH, enzyme/substrate conc

  4. Cells • Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic • Organelles • Cytoskeleton • Cell Membrane: phospholipids! Properties… • Transport types • Diffusion / Osmosis • Passive transport (high  low) • Water potential (measured in bars) • Solute & pressure potential • Lower the water potential (more negative) = more solute • Tension = produced by negative water potential • Turgor Pressure / Plasmolysis

  5. Cells continued… • Cell communication • Receptors • carbohydrates on surface • Ion channels • Enzyme linked receptors • G-proteins

  6. Cell Respiration: Aerobic (oxygen) • Enzymes! • Glycolysis  2 pyruvate • 2 ATP invested • Cytoplasm • Net 2 ATP, 2NADH • Oxidation of 2 Pyruvate  2 Acetyl CoA, 2NADH • Krebs cycle • Matrix of Mitochondria • 2 ATP produced (one per cycle) • Redox reactions: • NAD  NADH (3 per cycle = 6) • FAD  FADH2 (1 per cycle = 2) • ETC • Across the inner membrane of Mito. • Chemiosmosis: proton gradient/ATP synthase • Cytochromes • Oxygen is final electron acceptor! • 32 ATP produced • NADH = 3 ATP each (10X3 = 30 ATP) • FADH = 2 ATP each (2X2 = 4) • 30+4+2 = ~38 ATP per molecule of glucose Mitochondrial Structure!

  7. Cell Respiration: Anaerobic • NO Oxygen present! • Just Glycolysis: Net 2 ATP ONLY!! • cytoplasm • Alcohol Fermentation (yeast) • Lactic Acid Fermentation (bacteria, muscle cells) • No Kreb’s or ETC…

  8. Photosynthesis • ETC: photons excite electrons • Produces ATP & NADPH • Calvin Cycle: carbon fixation • C3: regular photo • RuBP, rubisco enzyme! • C4 • CAM • Chromatography: separation of pigments • Pigment movement: solubility, H-bonds

  9. Mitosis / Meiosis:DNA replicates once for both! • Chromatin, chromosomes, kinetochore • Cell Cycle (interphase & Mitosis) • Interphase • G1= growth • S= synthesis of DNA • G2= growth, prep for division, replicate organelles • G1, G2 checkpoints: regulated by protein kinases • Mitosis • Cancer: uncontrolled cell division • Metastasis: spread of cancer cells to other body parts

  10. Mitosis • Does not include Interphase • Prophase: chromosomes are visible • Metaphase: line up at middle • Anaphase: chromatids separate • Telophase • Cytokinesis

  11. Meiosis • Interphase precedes it! • Sordaria Lab: crossing over in Asci • Prophase I: crossing over occurs when tetrads form (homologous pairs), recombination • Crossing over more likely on genes farthest apart on chromosome

  12. Heredity • Test cross: to determine the genotype of a Dom genotype, always cross with aa • Polyploidy • Gene mapping • Genetic disorders: non-disjunction • Karyotyping: be able to read results! • Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) • Sickle Cell Anemia • Frameshift mutation

  13. Heredity • Polygenic inheritance: height, skin color • Pleiotropy • Pedigree charts • Autosomal Dominant, recessive • X-linked traits • Carriers (females) • Color-blindness, hemophilia & males

  14. Genetics • Complimentary bases • Eukaryotic Chromosome structure • DNA Replication (prokaryotic / eukaryotic) • Transcription / Translation into protein • RNA’s life… • Bacterial: Transformation, Conjugation, plasmids • Transposons: moving genes • Genetic Technologies • Bacterial Operons: (turn genes on /off) • inducible, repressible, binding site on promoter region of a gene

  15. Evolution • Populations evolve • Lamarck: acquired characteristics, use/dis-use • Darwin / Wallace • Homologous structures • Reproductive isolation • Behavioral Isolation • Temporal isolation (timing of mating) • Mechanical isolation (structural difference) • Hybrids • Genetic Drift • Founder effect • Bottleneck effect • Gene flow

  16. Evolution • Gradualism • Punctuated equilibrium • Biogeographical evidence • Natural selection • Adaptive radiation • Selection types: directional, disruptive, stabilizing • Hardy Weinberg!! Conditions, & equations • Heterozygote advantage