Mid-Term Skills Review 7th Grade English Mrs. Sherry Washington
Colons • Use a colon between the hour and minute. • Example- 8:30 A.M. • Use a colon after the salutation of a business letter. • Example- Dear Sir or Madam: • Example- To Whom It May Concern: • Use a colon between titles and subtitles. • Example- “Oral Storytelling: Making the Winter Shorter”
Use a colon (:) before a list of items, especially after expressions such as the following and as follows. • Example • You will need these items for map work: a ruler, colored pencils, and tracing paper. • Jack’s pocket contained the following items: a key, a button, and two quarters. • The primary colors are as follows: red, blue, and yellow.
Do not use a colon after a verb or a preposition. • Example • Your heading should contain: your name, the date, and the title of your essay. • Your heading should contain the following information: your name, the date, and the title of your essay.
Example • This marinara sauce is made of: tomatoes, onions, oregano, and garlic. • This marinara sauce is made of the following ingredients: tomatoes, onions, oregano, and garlic.
Appropriate Behaviors for Participating in Group Work • Ask relevant questions that move the group towards its goal. • Understand what you are trying to accomplish. • Come to an agreement (by seeking consensus or following majority). • Contribute appropriate & useful information • Consult reference texts/resources as needed. • Take turns speaking • Be respectful of others’ ideas • Don’t interrupt!
5 Major Group Roles • Leader • Recorder • Reporter • Timekeeper • Information gatherer **All group members must participate in discussion.**
Leader • Directs the group’s discussion • Makes sure everyone gets to speak • Keeps the group on task (asks questions)
Recorder • Writes down the group’s ideas • Must participate in the discussion • Records what the group agrees to do
Reporter • Participates in discussion • Tells the group’s ideas or conclusions to the teacher and/or the class.
Timekeeper • Participates in group discussion while • Keeping an eye on the time • Helps keep group on task
Information Gatherer • Participates in discussion • Gathers information the group needs and presents it to the group
Subject/Verb Agreement with • Collective Nouns • Compound Subjects Joined by and, or, & nor • Indefinite Pronouns as the Subject • Remember: -s on a verb means singular
Collective Nouns • Names a group • dozen, class, herd, group, school • Even in their singular forms, they name a group.
Collective Nouns & Agreement • Subjects & Verbs must always agree. • Collective nouns can have singular or plural meanings (even without an –s on the end of it). • band, team • How do I know the difference?
Agreement • If the group is acting as one (unit), then it is singular—use singular verb. • If individual members are acting, then it is plural—use plural verb. • Singular Verbs end in –s (runs, talks, swims) • Plural Verbs do not end in –s (run, talk, swim)
Examples • The whole flockenters the meadow through a gate. (a unit: singular) • The flockenter by different gates. (individual members: plural)
Examples • The entire audienceapplauds the performers. (a unit: singular) • The audiencetake their seats. (individual members: plural)
Examples • Look for other clues in the sentence to tell if it’s singular or plural. • The familybegins its trip. (its: singular) • The familyeat their sandwiches. (their: plural)
Compound Subject/Verb Agreement • When a compound subject is joined by and, it is plural. The verb must also be plural. • Mrs. Washington and Ms. Kaste teach English at BMS. • Both New York and Paris are major art centers.
Subject/Verb Agreement • When a compound subject is joined by or or nor, the verb must agree with the subject closest to the verb. • Neither the twins nor Carla is a good painter. • Neither this canvas nor the frames look sturdy.
In other words… • “and”= plural • “or” & “nor”= look at the subject closest to the verb
Definition • A pronoun that doesn’t always refer to a specific person, place, or thing • Often do not have antecedents
Singular-always take a singular verb • anyone • anybody • anything • each • either • everyone • everybody • everything • much • neither • no one • nobody • nothing • one • someone • somebody • something
Examples • Everybodyis having his or her picture made today. (is-singular) • Each of you will smile for the camera. • Something in this room smells good. (smells-singular)
Plural • both • few • many • others • several
Examples • Several of you still need to make up the test from Friday. (need-plural) • Both of the boys got into trouble.
Can Be Singular or Plural • some • any • none • all • more • most • Depends on the prepositional phrase that follows
Example • None of the milk is sour. What is none referring to? Is milk singular or plural? If milk is singular, then none is singular. • None of the grapes are sweet. What is none? Is it singular or plural? Therefore, none is plural.
Most can be used as adjectives • Pronoun: Some are bored by this movie. • Adjective: Some people are bored by this movie.
Class Practice • Does anyone know the story of Midas? • Everyone discusses the plot. • Both talk about King Minos. • All of the mythology is about beliefs and ideals. • All of the myths are about beliefs and ideals. • Each of the characters has his or her motive. • Several have conflict with their rivals.
Possessive Nouns • Be able to form the correct possessive of nouns. • Be able to recognize that nouns need apostrophes because they are possessive.
Common Nouns • a person, place, thing or idea that is not specific • Not capitalized • Examples: book, girl, umbrella, glasses, monument, movie, city, country
Proper Nouns • Name a specific person, place, or thing. • Always capitalized • Examples: Dr. Combs, President Bush, Miami Beach, Yankee Stadium, The Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C.
Capitalization for Proper Nouns • Animal names: Shamu, Tigger • Bodies of Water: Mississippi River • Streets: Highway 51, Main Street • Geographical Names: Painted Desert • Parks/Forests: Everglades National Park • Mountains: the Alps • Regions: the Middle East, the South
Capitalization Continued • Organizations: National Junior Honor Society • Teams: Chicago Bulls • Institutions: St. Jude Hospital • Government Bodies: Congress, Senate, House of Representatives, United Nations • Historical Events: Revolutionary War
Capitalization Continued • Do not capitalize seasons unless part of a title. • Ex. the winter holidays • Ex. the Quebec Winter Carnival
Capitalization Continued • Businesses: Brighton Bank, Abercrombie • Products: Apple Macintosh, Ford Mustang • Name of TYPES of products are NOT capitalized: Apple computer, Crest toothpaste, Nike tennis shoes
Capitalization Continued • Ships: Queen Elizabeth 2 • Trains: Amtrak • Planes: Air Force One • Spacecraft: Challenger • Buildings & Structures: Sydney Opera House, Brooklyn Bridge, Peabody Hotel • the hotel, a theater
Capitalization Continued • Religions: Christianity/Christians, Judaism/Jew • Holy Days: Easter, Yom Kippur, Christmas Eve • Sacred Writings: Bible, Koran • Specific Deities: God, Jehovah • god & goddess are not capitalized when referring to a deity ancient mythology
Capitalization Continued • Proper Adjectives: Greek pizza, Japanese food, American flag • School Subjects: languages/those followed by numbers • Ex. English, math, History 101, Algebra II
Capitalize Titles/Names 1. People’s names and initials: • Sherry E. Washington • S.E. Washington 2. Titles with names • Mrs. Washington • Dr. Washington • Congresswoman Washington
Capitalize Titles • Academic degrees • Sherry Washington, M.D. • Sherry Washington, Ph.D. 2. Junior/Senior • George Washington Sr.(Jr.)
Capitalize Titles 1. Family Relationships • I am telling Father what you did. • He went with Uncle Bill. 2. Exceptions (possessive nouns/pronouns) • I’m telling my father. • Susie’s uncle Bill is my coach.
Directions vs. Regions 1. Do not capitalize directions: • Travel south on Hwy 51. • A northerly wind was blowing. 2. Do capitalize regions. • We live in the South. • I love the West Coast.
Appositives • appositive - a noun that sits beside another noun to identify or explain it • Ex. My cousin Jack is two. The writer William Shakespeare (one word appositives don’t need a comma) • appositive phrase - the appositive and adjectives that describe it Ex. My neighbor Dr. Panda got her degree in biology, the scientific study of life.