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Literal Translation ( 直译 ) and Liberal / Free Translation ( 意译 )

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  1. Literal Translation(直译) and Liberal / Free Translation(意译)

  2. 1. She is in love with him. 2. Commit no nuisance. 3. I found myself at the foot of a hill. 4.岂有此理。 5.他这人从来不管什么 三七二十一。 她和他在爱中。 不要犯讨厌。 我在一座小山的山脚发现了自己。 There is no such principle. He never cares that three times seven equals to twenty-one. Warming-up:Translation Improvement

  3. I. Literal Translation • The so-called literal translation, superficially speaking, means “not to alter the original words and sentences”; strictly speaking, it strives “to keep the sentiments and style of the original”.

  4. crocodile’s tears • (鳄鱼的眼泪) • armed to the teeth • (武装到牙齿) • gentlemen’s agreement • (君子协定) • Smashing a mirror is no way to make an ugly person beautiful, nor it is a way to make social problem evaporate. • Literal:砸镜子不能使丑八怪变漂亮,也不能使社会问题 烟消云散. • Free:砸镜子不能解决实际问题

  5. II. Liberal / Free Translation • an alternative approach used mainly to convey the meaning and spirit of the originalwithout trying to reproduce its sentence patterns or figures of speech. • Free translation is more “TL-oriented” than literal translation.

  6. at sixes and sevens • 乱七八糟 • It rains cats and dogs • 滂沱大雨 • Don’t cross the bridge till you get to it. • 不必自寻烦恼;不要自找麻烦。 • Do you see any green in my eyes? • 你以为我是好欺骗的吗? • He threw the slipper to the bride and groom after the wedding ceremony and left. • 婚礼结束后, 他向这对新婚夫妇表达了祝福.

  7. III. Properuses • literal translation possibly; liberal translation alternatively • Choose the better one according to the usual expressing of the target language.

  8. IV. Attentions !!!!!! • 1. no absolutely “literal”, nor entirely “free” • 2. literal translation ≠ “死译”/ “硬译”: • Don’t be bound hand and foot by the source language syntax; • free translation ≠ “乱译”/“胡译”: • Do not add personal emotion to the original works. • 3. In idioms translation, if there are corresponding set sayings both in Chinese and English, just match them instead of translating literally.

  9. F (foreigner): Your wife is very beautiful! • I (interpreter): 你的太太真漂亮! • C (Chinese): 哪里,哪里! • I (interpreter): Where, where! • F (foreigner): From head to toe. • I (interpreter): 从头到脚(都美)。 • C (Chinese): 不见得,不见得。 • I (interpreter): Not to be seen, not to be seen.

  10. 1. She is in love with him. 她爱上了他。 2. Commit no nuisance. 不要随地小便。 3. I found myself at the foot of a hill. 我发现自己已在山脚下 4.岂有此理。 It is really absurd!Nonsense! 5.他这人从来不管什么三七二十一。 He has always been acting indiscriminately. He has always been acting regardless of the sequences. Examples

  11. 1) Birds of a feather flock (聚结) together. • 物以类聚 • 2) Nothing can be made out of nothing. • 巧妇难为无米之炊。 • 3) Great men are apt to have short memories. • 贵人多忘事。 • 4) Agues come on horse back, but go away on foot. • 病来如山倒,病去如抽丝。

  12. Exercises • 1. She and her mother are as like as two peas. • 2. Every life has its roses and thorns. • 3. He was a dead shot, but he met his Waterloo this time. • 4. He carried on his age astonishingly well. • 5. I was the youngest son, and the youngest child but two. • 6. The picture flattered her. • 7. I am under the weather, and may I take a rain check? • 8. The elevator girl reads books between passengers. • 9. There is no pot so ugly that it can’t find a lid. • 10. Little fish doesn’t eat big fish.

  13. Exercises • 1. A greeting card can warm a heart, • hold a hand, lend an ear, pat a back, • light up a face, tickle a funny bone, • dry an eye, surprise a child, woo a • sweetheart, toast a bride, welcome a • stranger, wave a good-bye, shout a • bravo, blow a kiss, mend a quarrel, • ease a pain, boost a morale, stop a • worry and start a tradition.

  14. 1. A greeting card can warm a heart, hold a hand, lend an ear, pat a back, light up a face, tickle a funny bone, dry an eye, surprise a child, woo a sweetheart, toast a bride, welcome a stranger, wave a good-bye, shout a bravo, blow a kiss, mend a quarrel, ease a pain, boost a morale, stop a worry and start a tradition. Tickle 使发痒 woo 追求 bravo 喝彩 morale 士气 一张问候卡可以温暖一颗心, 握紧一双手, 倾听肺腑言, 轻拍友人背; 它令人喜洋洋, 撩得心痒痒, 抹去泪汪汪; 它给孩子以惊喜, 给恋人以温存,给新娘以祝福, 给路人以欢迎;它可用以挥手道别, 高声喝彩, 送上飞吻, 也可用以平息争吵,减轻痛苦, 提高士气, 解除忧虑, 开创一种新风尚。

  15. Foreignizing method (异化) Domesticating method(归化)

  16. References • 郭著章,《英汉互译实用教程》, 武汉大学出版社, 2003. • 张春柏,《英汉汉英翻译教程》, 高等教育出版社, 2003. • 许钧,《翻译论》,湖北教育出版社,2003. • http://www.tac-online.org.cn/中国译协网 • http://www.china-translate.net/中国翻译网

  17. Literal/Free translation and Foreignizing/Domesticating translation • Foreignizing / Domesticating Translation are the extensionof Literal / Free Translation. • Foreignizing / Domesticating Translation mainly deal with culture, so they are a special kind of Literal / Free Translation.

  18. Foreigniziation: Alienation/ Dissimilation a target text deliberately breaks target conventions byretaining something of the foreignness of the original,so it is “SL-oriented”. Domestication: Assimilation a transparent, fluent style is adopted in order to minimize the strangeness of the foreign text for target language readers, so it is “TL-oriented”.

  19. 1). according to the sound of the SL Ballet Pizza salad Toffee shampoo 2). according to the literal meaning of the words of the SL hot dog forbidden fruit Trojan horse Sour grapes Foreignization in idioms translation

  20. Forbidden fruit; Adam’s apple禁果;亚当的苹果 Your Adam’s apple isn’t apparent. • Adam’s apple can be more clearly seen on men than women’s throats.

  21. The Trojan horse; Helen of Troy特洛伊木马;特洛伊的海伦 • Trojan horse is today a figurative expression used for anything intended to secretly bring about the downfall or defeat of an enemy. • a program designed to break the security of a computer system while ostensibly (表面上)performing an innocuous(无害的) function.

  22. Trojan horse (特洛伊木马): • the hidden danger; • the covert wreckers(内奸); • to engage in underhand activities • Helen of Troy (特洛伊的海伦): • a beautiful girl or woman; • a beauty who ruins her country; • a terrible disaster brought by sb or sth you like best • Sour grape and Sweet melon: • 酸葡萄;甜柠檬

  23. Domestication in idioms translation • Love me, love my dog. •  爱屋及乌 • lion in the way •  拦路虎 • lick one’s boots •  拍马屁  • Diamond cuts diamond • 棋逢对手

  24. To grow like mushrooms  • 雨后春笋 • wet like a drown rat • 湿如落汤鸡 • as stubborn as a mule • 犟得像牛 • seek a hare in a hen’s nest • 缘木求鱼 • Two can play the game. • 孤掌难鸣

  25. Have one foot in the grave • 行将就木/风烛残年 • cry up wine and sell vinegar • 挂羊头,卖狗肉 • talk horse • 吹牛 • kill the goose that lays the golden eggs • 杀鸡取卵 • drink like a fish • 牛饮 • He that lives with cripples learns to limp. • 近朱者赤,近墨者黑.

  26. Domesticating translation: Attentions !!!!!! • While using domesticating translation, the following Chinese idioms cannot be employed. • a. idioms that reflect the special Chinese custom(映中华民族特殊习俗) “腰缠万贯”;“罄竹难书” • b. idioms that contain Chinese scripts(有汉字特征) “目不识丁”;“八字没一撇” • c. idioms that contain Chinese names of places(含有中国地名) “稳如泰山”;“黔驴技穷”;“洛阳纸贵” • d. idioms that contain Chinese names of persons(含有中国人名) “名落孙山”;“事后诸葛亮”

  27. Beauty lies in lover’s eyes. • 情人眼里出美人 • Many heads are better than one. • 一人不及众人计 • Never offer to teach fish to swim. • 不要教鱼儿游泳

  28. Kill two birds with one stone. • A. 一石二鸟。 • B. 一举两得。 • C. 一箭双雕。 • D. 一并两用儿。

  29. 三个臭皮匠,顶个诸葛亮。 A. Three cobblers equal Zhuge Liang. B. Two heads are better than one. C. Three cobblers with their wits combined equal Zhuge Liang the master mind. D. The blacksmiths makes a Solomon. E. The wisdom of the masses exceeds that of the wisest individual.

  30. 好 好 学习 Good good study, 天 天 向上 day day up. (×) Study hard and you will make progress every day. 哪 里! 哪 里! Where! Where! (×) Thank you. (It’s very kind of you to say so.) × Dead translation(死译)

  31. 一个和尚挑水吃,两个和尚抬水吃,三个和尚没水吃。 • A. One boy is a boy, two boys, half a boy and three boys no boy. • B. Too many cooks spoil the broth.

  32. 静夜思 床前明月光, 疑是地上霜。 举头望明月, 低头思故乡。 In the Still of the Light I decry bright moonlight in front of my bed. I suspect it to be hoary on the floor. I watch the bright moon, as I tilt back my head. I yearn, while stooping, for my homeland more. (tr. by 徐中杰)

  33. Quiet Night Thought Beside bright moonlight Is suspected to be frost on the floor. Raising head to watch the bright moon, Lowering head to think of the hometown. 静夜思 床前明月光, 疑是地上霜。 举头望明月, 低头思故乡。

  34. 静夜思 • 李白 • 床前明月光, • 疑是地上霜。 • 举头望明月, • 低头思故乡。 • A Tranquil Night • ---- Translated by Xu Yuanchong • Before my bed a pool of night— • Can it be hoarfrost on the ground? • Looking up, I find the moon bright; • Bowing, In homesickness I’m drowned.

  35. 静夜思 • 窗前明月光, • 疑是地上霜。 • 举头望明月, • 低头思故乡。 • Thoughts in a Still Night • The luminous moonshine before my bed, • Is thought to be the frost fallen on the ground. • I lift my head to gaze at the cliff moon, • And then bow down to muse on my distant home. • Tr. May,1980.(孙大雨)

  36. Exercises • 1. Ivory tower • 2. Among the blind the one-eyed man is King. • 3. Last night I heard him driving his pig to market. • 4. The teenagers don’t invite Bob to their parties • because he is a wet blanket. • 5. He caught forty winks just now.

  37. E-C Translation • 1.It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness; it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity; it was the season of the Light, it was the season of the Darkness; it was the spring of Hope, it was the winter of Despair; we had everything before us, we had nothing before us; we were all going to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way.

  38. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness; it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity; it was the season of the Light, it was the season of the Darkness; it was the spring of Hope, it was the winter of Despair; we had everything before us, we had nothing before us; we were all going to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way. 这是最美好的时期,这是最坏的时期; 这是智慧的年代,这是愚蠢的年代; 这是充满信仰的时代,这是顾虑重重的时代; 这是光明的季节,这是黑暗的季节; 这是富有希望的春天,这是充满绝望的冬天; 我们拥有一切,我们一无所有; 我们正笔直走上天堂,我们正笔直走下地狱。

  39. E-C Translation: • 2.Most of us, however, take life for granted. We know that one day we must die, but usually we picture that day as far in the future. When we are in buoyant health, death is all but unimaginable. We seldom think of it. The days stretch out in an endless vista. So we go about petty tasks, hardly aware of our listless attitude toward life.

  40. Most of us, however, take life for granted. We know that one day we must die, but usually we picture that day as far in the future. When we are in buoyant health, death is all but unimaginable. We seldom think of it. The days stretch out in an endless vista. So we go about petty tasks, hardly aware of our listless attitude toward life. 然而,我们大多数人都将生命视为理所当然。 我们知道有一天我们肯定会死去,但通常我们都把那一天想象得遥遥无期。 当我们欢乐健康时,死亡几乎难以想象。 我们极少想到它,时光像一道无穷尽的远景延伸出去。 于是我们终日忙于琐事,几乎意识不到自己对生活的这种倦怠的态度。

  41. 3. Until the nineteenth century, the Asians were relatively successful in holding the European traders and missionaries at bay. The Chinese court assumed an aloof and patronizing attitude toward these Westerners, keeping them confined to the southern port cities of Macao and later, Canton. China’s rulers supremely confident in their own tradition, professed little need of Western goods and ideas. Thus responding to a British request for diplomatic representation in Beijing in 1816, the Chinese Emperor avowed that “my dynasty attached no value to products from abroad, your nation’s strange wares do not appeal to me in the least, nor do they interest me.”

  42. Until the nineteenth century, the Asians were relatively successful in holding the European traders and missionaries at bay. The Chinese court assumed an aloof and patronizing attitude toward these Westerners, keeping them confined to the southern port cities of Macao and later, Canton. Patronizing 以恩人态度的 Canton 广州 Wares器皿 Profess公开声称 Avow公开宣布 到十九世纪, 亚洲人民还是比较成功地把欧洲的商人和传道士拒之门外. 中国朝廷对西方人采取冷漠和施恩的态度, 把他们限制在南方的港口城市澳门和后来的广州.

  43. China’s rulers supremely confident in their own tradition, professed little need of Western goods and ideas. Thus responding to a British request for diplomatic representation in Beijing in 1816, the Chinese Emperor avowed that “my dynasty attached no value to products from abroad, your nation’s strange wares do not appeal to me in the least, nor do they interest me.” 中国的统治者对于自己的传统极其自信, 声称根本不需要西方的物品和思想. 因此,在答复英国提出的在北京派驻使臣的请求时, 中国的皇帝说: “吾朝视外邦物产一文不值,汝国之怪异物品无法吸引朕,朕亦无兴致.”

  44. 这是最美好的时期,这是最坏的时期;这是智慧的年代,这是愚蠢的年代;这是充满信仰的时代,这是顾虑重重的时代;这是光明的季节,这是黑暗的季节;这是富有希望的春天,这是充满绝望的冬天;我们拥有一切,我们一无所有;我们正笔直走上天堂,我们正笔直走下地狱。

  45. 然而,我们大多数人都将生命视为理所当然。我们知道有一天我们肯定会死去,但通常我们都把那一天想象得遥遥无期。当我们欢乐健康时,死亡几乎难以想象。我们极少想到它,时光像一道无穷尽的远景延伸出去。于是我们终日忙于琐事,几乎意识不到自己对生活的这种倦怠的态度。