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American Expansion 1800 - 1850. Conestoga wagons, sturdy vehicles topped with white canvas, carried settlers most valued possessions – a rifle and ax. Manifest Destiny. The Louisiana Purchase. The Louisiana Territory – in 1800 belong to Spain.

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american expansion 1800 1850

American Expansion1800 - 1850

Conestoga wagons, sturdy vehicles topped with white canvas, carried settlers most valued possessions – a rifle and ax.

Manifest Destiny

the louisiana purchase
The Louisiana Purchase
  • The Louisiana Territory – in 1800 belong to Spain.
  • Extended west form the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains.
  • Northern boundary was undefined, southern boundary was the City of New Orleans.
  • Mississippi River and the Port of New Orleans was vital to trade.
france becomes our neighbor
France Becomes Our Neighbor
  • The French ruler Napoleon Bonaparte convinces Spain to return the Louisiana Territory.
  • France has plans to settle the territory with thousands of French farmers and raise food for their slaves in the Caribbean.
  • Americans are worried that Napoleon will close the port of New Orleans or use the territory to attack us from.
one man s problem is another s opportunity
One man’s problem, is another’s opportunity
  • French slaves, lead by Toussaint L’Ouverture, revolt in the Caribbean and push the French out.
  • Napoleon no longer needs the Louisiana Territory, but does need money for a war with England.
  • France would rather sell the territory than lose it to England in a war.
the offer and counter offer
The Offer and Counter-Offer
  • In 1803 President Jefferson sends James Monroe and Robert Livingston to France with an offer of $7.5 million for New Orleans.
  • Napoleon offers ALL of the territory in exchange for $15 million (2-3 cents/acre).
  • On April 30, 1803 Monroe signs a treaty finalizing the exchange.
  • What Constitutional authority did the Jefferson have to make this deal?
the interview
The Interview
  • Federalist did not like the deal:

- new states would be agricultural and most likely Republican.

  • Some in New England consider withdrawing from the union, but need a strong leader.
  • The man tapped is Aaron Burr, for the plan to work he runs for governor of New York.
  • Hamilton Accuses Burr of plotting treason and Burr loses the election.
  • Meet me in Weehawken.
deal or no deal
Deal or No Deal
  • In 1804, Jefferson offers to buy Florida from Spain, the answer was…no deal.
  • Spain could not control raids by Seminoles into Georgia, nor escaping slaves into the colony.
  • In 1818 President James Monroe sends Andrew Jackson into to Florida to stop the raids.
  • Jackson takes every military post in the colony and replaces the Spanish governor with an American.
  • Spain demands Jackson be called back and his illegal invasion stopped.
florida for texas
Florida for Texas
  • John Quincy Adams convinces Monroe to send Spain a blunt message.
  • Rather than apologies, Monroe message says either govern Florida properly or get out.
  • Spain blinks, and agrees to yield Florida to the United States for $5 million.
  • America also agrees to honor Spain’s longtime claim to Texas.
fifty four forty or fight
Fifty-four forty or Fight
  • In 1819, Oregon was claimed by four nations – Russia, Spain, Great Britain , and the United States.
  • By 1825, both Russia and Spain had dropped their claims to the territory.
  • With discovery of the South Pass more than 2000 settlers made the long journey in 1844 to Oregon.
  • A Boston paper reported that “Oregon fever has broken out and is now raging.”
  • James Polk wins the presidential campaigns on the “All of Oregon or none!”
half full or half empty
Half full or Half empty?
  • Polk is not willing to start a war with Britain over Oregon.
  • Agrees to compromise treaty that divides Oregon roughly in half at the 49th parallel.
  • This line represents the modern-day western border between United States and Canada.
  • While senators from the west wanted to hold out for all of Oregon, the treaty was ratified on June 18, 1846.
a rising star
A Rising Star
  • As an independent country, Texas became know as the Lone Star Republic.
  • Despite their wishes, Texas remained independent for 10 years.
  • Southerners were eager to add another slave state, Northerners who opposed slavery wanted to keep Texas out.
  • Other feared that annexation would lead to war with Mexico.
  • After Polk was elected, Congress admitted Texas as the 28th state in 1845.
how dare they shoot at us
How Dare They Shoot at US
  • After compromising with Britain on Oregon and annexing Texas, President Polk focused on the huge territories of California and New Mexico.
  • Mexico refused any offer to purchase the lands.
  • To Mexico, the annexation of Texas was an act of war. To make matter worse, Texas and Mexico could not agree on a border.
  • On April 25, 1846, Mexican soldiers fired on American troops patrolling along the disputed border, killing 16.
the time has come to fight
“The Time Has Come to Fight”
  • Americans forces take control of New Mexico with out firing a shot.
  • Likewise, a group of American rebel in California, and within weeks it all of California is under American control.
  • 6,000 American troops, led by Zachary Taylor, clash with 20,000 Mexicans being led by Santa Anna. After two days of fierce fighting Santa Anna retreats abandoning N. Mexico.
  • 7 months later the Mexico City is taken by U.S.
slide14
Nike
  • In 1848, Mexico and the U.S. sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
  • Mexico gives up Texas, and the region know as the Mexican Cession ( California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico).
  • U.S. agrees to pay Mexico $15 million.
  • Seeking flat land for a southern railroad, in 1853 the U.S buys a strip of land on the border for $10 million called the Gadsden Purchase.