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Westward Expansion (1820s-1850)

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Westward Expansion (1820s-1850)

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  1. Texas Early Settlement Texas War (1835-36) Lone Star Republic (1836-45) Manifest Destiny Polk Texas Annexation Oregon “Joint Occupation” Oregon Treaty (1846) California/Southwest Background Mexican War (1846-48) Key Terms Mexican Colonization Law Stephen Austin Texans Santa Anna The Alamo Sam Houston James K. Polk “54° 40’ or Fight” Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Westward Expansion(1820s-1850)

  2. US Territorial Expansion From 890,000 square miles in 1790 to 3 million in 1850

  3. Early Settlement & Texas • In early 1820s about 3,000 illegal immigrants (from US) lived in Mexico. • Mexican Government: How do we address problem so they’re loyal Mexican citizens?

  4. Mexican Colonization Law(1824) • Became Mexican citizens. • Obeyed Mexican laws. • Slavery was illegal. • Converted to Catholicism. American Immigrants could receive a League & Labor of land if they…

  5. League & Labor • League: 4,400 acres of grazing land • Labor: 170 acres of farmland

  6. Texas Colonizer Stephen Austin • An “Empresario” who led many American families to Texas. • Over 35,000 Americans had moved by 1835. • Texans: Former American citizens who moved to Texas; most lived in the region of “Coahuila y Texas.”

  7. US/Mexican Relations • US minister to Mexico; authorized to buy Texas, but failed • But, he did return with… Joel Poinsett

  8. Mexican Government(A New President) General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Perez de Lebron • Santa Anna’s policies led to tension with Texans. • Result: Texas War for Independence (1835-36).

  9. Sam Houston Texas War For Independence (1835-36) • Houston led Texans in fight for Independence from Mexico. • He and Austin attempted (but failed) to obtain help from US Government. • What was this war? • Texans vs. Mexico

  10. Texas War For Independence Alamo-187 Texans vs. 5,000 Mexicans Goliad-Texan POW’s were killed San Jacinto- Texans slaughter Mexicans & win the war

  11. Lone Star Republic From 1836-1845 Texas was an independent nation called the Lone Star Republic.

  12. Manifest Destiny “The American claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federative self-government entrusted to us. It is a right such as that of the tree to the space of air and earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth…” • John L. O’Sullivan

  13. Expansion West Key Concept: • Belief which held that the nation’s obvious destiny was to expand from the Atlantic to Pacific Ocean. Manifest Destiny (1840s) • Many Americans believed the US was special because of its democratic style of government.

  14. President’s & Manifest Destiny James K. Polk (1845-49) Polk promised to: • Acquire Oregon, Texas, and California for the US. • Retire after one term as President.

  15. Polk & Texas • After Polk’s election, but before his inauguration…. • Texas entered the Union as the 28th state in 1845. Polk and Dallas Flag

  16. Polk & Oregon Oregon was “Jointly Occupied” by the US and Great Britain since 1819

  17. James K. Polk & Oregon • Privately, Polk agreed to compromise with the British; this led to Oregon Treaty (1846). • Polk’s campaign slogan: “54° 40’ or Fight.”

  18. Oregon Treaty(1846) • 49th parallel became the boundary between the US and Great Britain (Canada). • The British received Vancouver Island.

  19. Polk & California • US tried to purchase California & Southwest ($25 million); Mexico refused. • US/Mexico border was disputed.

  20. Close-up Of Disputed Area US Troops were sent into the disputed region

  21. US Army Occupation, Texas This picture shows US forces occupying the disputed territory with Mexico.

  22. Polk & California • US tried to purchase California & Southwest ($25 million); Mexico refused. • US/Mexico border was disputed. • Fighting broke out in 1846 between US & Mexican forces which lasted until 1848.

  23. Treaty Of Guadalupe Hidalgo(1848) Treaty that ended the Mexican War: • Rio Grande was border between US & Mexico. • US received California & territory in Southwest. • US gave Mexico $15 million.

  24. President’s & Manifest Destiny James K. Polk (1845-49) Polk promised to: • Acquire Oregon, Texas, and California for the US. • Retire after one term as President.

  25. Texas Early Settlement Texas War (1835-36) Lone Star Republic (1836-45) Manifest Destiny Polk Texas Annexation Oregon “Joint Occupation” Oregon Treaty (1846) California/Southwest Background Mexican War (1846-48) Key Terms Mexican Colonization Law Stephen Austin Texans Santa Anna The Alamo Sam Houston James K. Polk “54° 40’ or Fight” Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Westward Expansion(1820s-1850)