VUS 6 1800-1850’s MANIFEST DESTINY
**TWO PARTIES EMERGE AFTER WASHINGTON’S PRESIDENCY ENDED IN THE 1790’S-2 POLITICAL PARTIES EMERGED Two parties: FEDERALISTS DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS
**DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN PARTY EMERGES • Democratic-Republican party (1792) emerges because controversy over Federalists’ support for Bank of the U.S., Jays Treaty, and the undeclared war on France. • The Jays Treaty (1794) avoided war with Britain by forcing the British to evacuate their posts in the NW territory,but did nothing about British sailors impressing American sailors.
**DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS Leaders-Thomas Jefferson, James Madison Believed in a weak national government and an agricultural economy Supporters were farmers, artisans, and frontier settlers in the South
***FEDERALISTS Leaders-John Adams and Alexander Hamilton Believed in a strong national government and commercial economy Supported by bankers and business interests in the North
**Election of 1800 Won by Thomas Jefferson First American presidential election in which power was peacefully transferred from one party to another.
**LOUISIANA PURCHASE 1803: Thomas Jefferson authorizes purchase from France (Napoleon) More than doubled the size of the United States overnight Jefferson purchased for $15 million-3 cents an acre LP=US2
**Lewis and Clark Expedition 1804-1806 Explored the new territories that lay west of the Mississippi River Sacagawea, an Indian woman, served as their guide and translator Started in St. Louis, Missouri ended in Oregon. M = Mississippi River S = Sacagawea U = US2
**War of 1812(Madison-President) REASONS FOR WAR Fought against the British because of interference in trade routes and impressment policy (kidnapping U.S. sailors to work on British ships) British interfering with westward expansion Federalists opposed war-talked of secession and constitutional amendments which were not acted upon.
REASONS FOR WAR of 1812 • Trade Route • Impressment • British interference with westward expansion • TIMBIWE
**War of 1812- LAND RESULTS Led to an American claim of the Oregon Territory with Britain Increased migration into Floridawhich was later acquired in a treaty with Spain OTF WAR OF 1812 RESULTS =
**Monroe Doctrine (1823)-James Monroe-President U.S. FOREIGN POLICY No further colonization by European powers on the American continents Western Hemisphere countries were republics not monarchies. Any violation would be seen as a threat by the United States United States would not interfere in European affairs
**Monroe Doctrine (1823)-James Monroe-President U.S. FOREIGN POLICY IF N0 col West Hem rep t U S THEN no inter Euraff
COTTON GIN • Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton ginled to the spread of the cotton kingdom in the Deep South
**American Expansion-Westward movement MANIFEST DESTINY American settlers streamed westward seeking economic opportunity in the form of land to own and farm Railroads and canals helped the growth of an industrial economy and moved settlers west. Reasons for westward movement = MD CREO
**WESTERN MOVEMENT-IMPACT ON AMERICAN INDIANS “Manifest Destiny” provided political support for territorial expansion During westward expansion, the American Indians were repeatedly defeated in violent conflicts with settlers and soldiers. They would be forcibly removed from their ancestral homelands in 1830.
**WESTERN MOVEMENT IMPACT ON AMERICAN INDIANS Andrew Jackson’s INDIAN REMOVAL ACT-1830- The Trail Of Tears- when several tribes were relocated from Atlantic coastal states to Oklahoma. AJIRA = ToT
**MIGRATION INTO TEXAS Mexico gained freedom from Spain in 1819 American migration into Texas led to an armed revolt against Mexican rule Battle of the Alamo-1836 –Band of Texans fought to the last man against a vastly superior Mexican Army. The Texans eventual victory over Mexican forces brought Texas into the United States
**Mexican War (1846-1848) American victory in the Mexican Warled to the acquisition of Mexican territory (Mexican Cession) that included the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and parts of Colorado and New Mexico. California Gold Rush 1848-1855 Mexican Cession = CC NUAN
**MANIFEST DESTINY • GADSDEN PURCHASE (1853), from Mexico- present day shape of the CONTINENTAL U.S. is now complete.
Terms to know • Aristocracy-government in which power is given to those seen as most qualified (rich people). Aristocrat. • Presidential veto- Constitutional power granted to the President to prevent passage of legislation. Jackson used this power more than any previous President.
**THE AGE OF THE”COMMON MAN”was characterized by the following: • The rise of interest group politics and sectional issues • A dirty campaigning • Increased voter (more voters) participation-elimination of property requirements to vote for white males-prior to 1828 Age of the Common Man = InG Si dicam Mvote
**ANDREW JACKSON-“the common man” • AJ personified the “democratic spirit” of the age by challenging the economic elite (aristocrats + rich people) and rewarding campaign supporters with cushy public service jobs (the spoils system) • AJ = DS3
Background of Nullification The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798-99) were political statements in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The Resolutions argued that the states had the right and the duty to declare unconstitutional any acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution. In doing so, they argued for states' rights and strict constructionism of the Constitution. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798 were written secretly by Vice President Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, respectively. Marbury v. Madison 1803 – Judicial Review McCulloch v. Maryland 1819 – Implied Powers Gibbons v. Ogden 1824 – Interstate Commerce Tariff of 1828 – The Tariff of Abominations The major goal of the tariff was to protect industries in the northern United States which were being driven out of business by low-priced imported goods by putting a tax on them. The South, however, was harmed directly by having to pay higher prices on goods the region did not produce, and indirectly because reducing the exportation of British goods to the US made it difficult for the British to pay for the cotton they imported from the South. The reaction in the South, particularly in South Carolina, would lead to the Nullification Crisis that began in late 1832.
**DEBATES OVER THE NATURE OF THE UNION(U.S.)-THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS South Carolinians argued that states could NULLIFY (VOID )The Tariff of 1832(protective tax on imported goods) and other acts of Congress. states could secede from the Union in defense of slavery(the Nullification Crisis). President Jackson threatened to send in federal troops to collect the tariff revenues.
JACKSON AND THE BANK OF THE UNITED STATES(BUS) • JACKSON VIEWED THE BANK AS A TOOL OF THE RICH-HE VETOED THE RECHARTERING OF THE BANK IN 1832. HIS OPPONENT HENRY CLAY SUPPORTED THE BANK. • JACKSON’S RE-ELECTION BROUGHT AN END TO THE BANK. AJ = IRA NOBUS
JACKSON AND THE PANIC OF 1837 1)JACKSON TOOK MONEY OUT OF THE BANK of the US AND PUT IN PET BANKS 2)PET BANKS FAILED –BANKS STOPPED ACCEPTING PAPER CURRENCY 3)LED TO THE PANIC OF 1837
PANIC OF 1837-RESULTS • COLLAPSE OF THE CREDIT SYSTEM • BANK CLOSINGS • BANKRUPTED HUNDREDS OF BUSINESSES • 1/3 PEOPLE OUT OF WORK
**POLITICAL PARTIES • The FEDERALIST PARTY disappeared and new political parties were organized in opposition to the Democratic Party • The Whigs-believed in a strong central government and opposed Jackson’s King Like actions. • The Know Nothings-anti-immigrant party
**SECTIONAL TENSIONS-between North and South The INDUSTRIAL NORTH -favored high protective tariffs to protect Northern manufactured goods from foreign competition. *protective tariff-tax on imported goods
**SECTIONAL TENSIONS-between North and South The AGRICULTURAL SOUTH -opposed protective tariffs because that made the price of imports more expensive.
**POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY • WHEN STATES (OR PEOPLES) RULE THEMSELVES.
**SECTIONAL TENSIONS-caused by westward expansion • As new states entered the Union, compromises were reached that maintained the balance of power in Congress between “free” and “slave” states.
**SLAVERY COMPROMISES The Missouri Compromise 1820-drew an east-west line through the Louisiana Purchase, with slavery prohibited above the line and allowed below,except slavery was allowed in Missouri,north of the line 36-30.