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Towards energy efficient Internet Service Providers – ECOnet Perspective. Constantinos Vassilakis cvassilakis@grnet.gr Greek Research and Technology Network. Outline. The ECONET Project Energy consumption and energy efficiency demand

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towards energy efficient internet service providers econet perspective

Towards energy efficient Internet Service Providers – ECOnet Perspective

ConstantinosVassilakis

cvassilakis@grnet.gr

Greek Research and Technology Network

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

outline
Outline
  • The ECONET Project
  • Energy consumption and energy efficiency demand
  • Decomposing the Energy Consumption in the Wired Network
  • A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches
  • ECONET approach
  • Potential Impact on the Wired Network

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

the econet project
The ECONET project
  • Increasing the energy efficiency and the sustainable growth of our world is a global process where Telecommunications technologies (and the ICTs in general) play a key role.
  • But to obtain optimum results the process should involve the “two faces of the same coin”:
    • Green ICT – reducing the carbon footprint of ICT
    • ICT for Green – using ICT for reducing third party-wastes.
  • ECONET is dealing with the first aspect
    • Focused on short and medium time exploitation

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

the econet project1
The ECONET project

Manufacturers

The Consortium

Operators

Academic /research centers

Small/Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

the econet project2
The ECONET project
  • Goals: re-thinking and re-designing network equipment towards more energy-sustainable and eco-friendly technologies and perspectives.
    • The overall idea is to introduce novel green network-specific paradigms and concepts enabling the reduction of energy requirements of wired network equipment by 50% in the short/mid-term (and by 80% in the long run) with respect to the business-as-usual scenario.
    • To this end, the main challenge is to design, develop and test novel technologies, integrated control criteria and mechanisms for network equipment allowing energy saving by dynamically adapting the device capacities and consumptions to current traffic loads and user requirements.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

energy consumption and energy efficiency demand
Energy consumption and energy efficiency demand
  • There are two main motivations that drive the quest for “green” ICT:
    • the environmental one, which is related to the reduction of wastes, in order to impact on CO2 emission;
    • the economical one, which stems from the reduction of operating costs (OPEX) of ICT services.

How muchis 2% of CO2?

Gartner Group, Inc. (2007)

“The global information and communications technology (ICT) industry accounts for approximately 2% of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a figure equivalent to aviation.”

Note that the ICT sector raises much faster than aviation

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

energy consumption and energy efficiency demand1
Energy consumption and energy efficiency demand

The figures refer to the whole corporate consumption. As such, they account for numerous sources, other than the operational absorption of the networking equipment (e.g., offices’ heating and lights). Notwithstanding, they give an idea of the general trend.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

energy consumption and energy efficiency demand2
Energy consumption and energy efficiency demand

Source: C. Bianco, F. Cucchietti, G. Griffa, ” Energy consumption trends in the Next Generation

Access Network - a Telco perspective, ” IEEE INTELEC 2007.

Electrical energy consumption evolution and future trends for TELIT’s fixed network. Source: Telecom Italia

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

decomposing the energy consumption the wired network
Decomposing the Energy ConsumptionThe Wired Network

Typical access, metro and core device density and energy requirements in today’s typical networks deployed by telcos, and ensuing overall energy requirements of access and metro/core networks.

Source: R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, F. Cucchietti, “Energy Efficiency in the Future Internet: A Survey of Existing Approaches and Trends in Energy-Aware Fixed Network Infrastructures,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials,vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 223-244, 2nd Qr. 2011.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

decomposing the energy consumption high end routers
Decomposing the Energy ConsumptionHigh-end Routers

Estimate of power consumption sources in a generic platform of high-end IP router.

Source: R. Tucker, “Will optical replace electronic packet switching?”, SPIE Newsroom, 2007.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

decomposing the energy consumption is the energy consumption currently load dependent
Decomposing the Energy Consumption Is the energy consumption currently load-dependent?

Daily traffic profile of core GRNET network router (peering with GEANT)

Power consumption in GRNET core routers (24-hour period)

Network engineers only speak about the capacity of a device or of a link interface…

…as a matteroffact, device and link are specifically designed to work at the maximum speed…

Source: The ECONET Consortium, ”End-user requirements, technology specifications and benchmarking methodologies,” Deliverable 2.1.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

decomposing the energy consumption is the energy consumption currently load dependent1
Decomposing the Energy Consumption Is the energy consumption currently load-dependent?
  • There is no significant difference in power consumption whether a port is running at 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps.
  • The switch power consumption is increased by connecting a new link, even if there is no data being transmitted on this link.
  • The difference in power consumption is quite low when a 1 Gbps link is fully utilized compared to when it is zero utilized.

Power Consumption of Cisco Catalyst 2970 Switch

  • Source: K. Christensen, P. Reviriego, B. Nordman, M. Bennett, M. Mostowfi, J.A. Maestro, "IEEE 802.3az: the road to energy efficient ethernet," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol.48, no.11, pp.50-56, November 2010.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

decomposing the energy consumption day night traffic profiles
Decomposing the Energy Consumption Day & Night Traffic Profiles

Percentagew.r.t. peak level.The profiles exhibit regular, daily cyclical traffic patterns with Internet traffic dropping at night and growing during the day.

Traffic load fluctuation at peering links for about 40 ISPs from USA and Europe

Source: http://asert.arbornetworks.com/2009/08/what-europeans-do-at-night/

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

decomposing the energy consumption energy wastes
Decomposing the Energy Consumption Energy wastes
  • Networks and devices are lightly utilized.
    • Often peak loads during rush hours are generally much lower than capacities of links and devices.
      • It is well known that the «overdimensioning» is the best design strategy for assuring QoS levels…
    • Moreover, traffic loads follow well-known day & night fluctuations.
  • On the other hand, the energy requirements of network devices remain substantially flat according to their workload.
  • Furthermore, networks are highly overprovisioned /redundant to assure service availability.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

a taxonomy of undertaken approaches
A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

The largest part of undertaken approaches regarding engineered improvements is funded on few base concepts, which have been generally inspired by energy-saving mechanisms and power management criteria that are already partially available in computing systems.

Source: R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, F. Davoli, F. Cucchietti, “Energy Efficiency in the Future Internet: A Survey of Existing Approaches and Trends in Energy-Aware Fixed Network Infrastructures,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials,vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 223-244, 2nd Qr. 2011.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide16

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Re-engineering

  • Re-engineering approaches aim at:
    • introducing and designing more energy-efficient elements for network device architectures
    • suitably dimensioning and optimizing the internal organization of devices
    • reducing their intrinsic complexity levels.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide17

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Dynamic Adaptation

  • The dynamic adaptation of network/device resources is designed to modulate capacities of packet processing engines and of network interfaces, to meet actual traffic loads and requirements.
  • This can be performed by using two power-aware capabilities, namely, dynamic voltage scaling and idle logic, which both allow the dynamic trade-off between packet service performance and power consumption.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide18

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Dynamic Adaptation

Standard operations

Wakeup and sleeping times

Idle logic

Increased service times

Power scaling

Idle + power scaling

Wakeup and sleeping + increased service times

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide19

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Dynamic Adaptation: Green Ethernet (IEEE 802.3 az)

First version: Adaptive Link Rate proposed by Christensen and Nordman

Final Version: based on the “low power idle” concept, proposed by Intel.

15

Idea: transmit data at the maximum speed, and put the link to sleep when it is idle.

LPI can possibly be

asynchronous

10

Power(W)

5

0

10

100

1000

10000

Link speed (Mb/sec)

  • Tw and Ts for 10 Gb/s in IEEE Std 802.3az-2010 are 4.48 μs and 2.88 μs, respectively

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide20

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Dynamic Adaptation: SW routers & ACPI

  • In PC-based devices, the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) provides a standardized interface between the hardware and the software layers.
  • ACPI introduces two power saving mechanisms, which can be individually employed and tuned for each core:
    • Power States (C-states)
      • C0is the active power state
      • C1through Cn are processor sleeping or idle states (where the processor consumes less power and dissipates less heat).
    • Performance States (P-states)
      • while in the C0 state, ACPI allows the performance of the core to be tuned through P-state transitions.P-states allow to modify the operating energy point of a processor/core by altering the working frequency and/or voltage, or throttling the clock.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide21

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Dynamic Adaptation: SW routers & ACPI

[MHz]

Source: R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, A. Ranieri, “Green Support for PC-based Software Router: Performance Evaluation and Modeling”, Proc. IEEE ICC 2009, Dresden, Germany, June 2009. Best Paper Award.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide22

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Sleeping/Standby

  • Sleeping/standby approaches are used to smartly and selectively drive unused network/device portions to low standby modes, and to wake them up only if necessary.
  • However,
    • since today’s networks and related services and applications are designed to be continuously and always available,
    • standby modes have to be explicitly supported with special techniques able to maintain the “network presence” of sleeping nodes/components.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide23

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Sleeping/Standby: Proxying the Network Presence

  • Scenario: networkedhosts(PCs, consumer electronics, etc.);
  • Problem: whenanend-hostenters standby mode, itfreezesall network services, and itisnotabletomaintainits network presence;
  • Idea: introduce a Network Connection Proxy (NCP), whichisdevotedtomaintain the network presenceof sleeping hosts.

Source: M. Allman, K. Christensen, B. Nordman, V. Paxson, “Enabling an Energy-Efficient Future Internet Through Selectively Connected End Systems,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM HotNets, Atlanta, GA, Nov. 2007.

I wanttosleep

Zzzzz…

Wakeup/sleep

messages

Continuous and full connectivity

Application-specificmessages

Sleeping host

NCP

Internet

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide24

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Sleeping/Standby: Proxying the Network Presence

  • Scenario: CoreNetworks
  • Idea: put links, interfaces and part ofnodes (e.g., line-cards) tosleep
  • Problem: Network stability, convergencetimes at multiple levels (e.g., MPLS trafficengineering + IP routing)

Source: R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, A. Cianfrani, M. Listanti, “PuttingBackboneNetworkstoSleep,” IEEE Network Magazine, SpecialIssue on “Green Networking”, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 26-31, March/April 2011.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide25

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Sleeping/Standby: Proxying the Network Presence

  • Solution: they exploited two features already present in today’s networks and devices:
    • network resource virtualization
    • modular architecture of network nodes.
  • This approach allows to:
    • Put physical resources to sleep (e.g., links, linecards, etc.);
    • Move the logical entities working on physical elements going to sleep, to other physical elements on the device.
  • If suitable L2 protocols are used, the complexity of standby management can be hidden from the IP layer, and totally managed inside traffic engineering procedures.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide26

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Green network-wide control: Traffic engineering & routing

Performance scaling

  • Standby states have usually much lower energy requirements than active states.
  • Network-wide control strategies (i.e., routing and traffic engineering) give the possibility of moving traffic load among network nodes.
  • When a network is under-utilized, we can move network load on few “active” nodes, and put all the other ones in standby.
    • Different network nodes can have heterogeneous energy capabilities and profiles.
  • Recent studies, obtained with real data from Telcos (topologies and traffic volumes) suggested that network-wide control strategies could cut the overall energy consumption by more than 23%.

Standby state

Power Consumption

Energy-aware state

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide27

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Green network-wide control: Traffic engineering & routing

Only local control policies

Local + network-wide control policies

Once network devices will include energy management primitives, further energy reduction will be possible by moving traffic flows among the network nodes, in order to minimize the energy consumption of the entire infrastructure.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

the econet approach
The ECONET approach

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

the econet approach1
The ECONET approach

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

the econet approach2
The ECONET approach

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

the econet approach3
The ECONET approach

Green AbstractionLayer

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

the econet approach4
The ECONET approach

ECONET Test Bench

@ TELIT Test Plant

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

potential impact on the wired network
Potential Impact on the Wired Network
  • The previouslymentioned green technologiesallowdesigningnew-generation network devicescharacterizedby “energyprofiles”

Reference: R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, A. Carrega, F. Davoli, D. Suino, C. Vassilakis, A. Zafeiropoulos, “Cutting the Energy Bills of Internet Service Providers and Telecoms through Power Management: an Impact Analysis”, Elsevier Computer Networks, Special Issue on “Green Communication Networks”, to appear

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

potential impact on the wired network telit reference scenario
Potential Impact on the Wired NetworkTELIT reference scenario

2015-2020 network forecast: device density and energy requirements

(example based on Italian network)

Sources: 1) BroadBand Code of Conduct V.3 (EC-JRC) and “inertial” technology improvements to 2015-2020 (home and access cons.)

2) Telecom Italia measurements and evaluations (power consumption of metro/core network and number of devices)

Network load statistics and topology data

target

Home/Access

Metro/Transport/Core

Sources: BroadBand Code of Conduct V.3 (EC-JRC) and technology improvements to 2015-2020.

Device internal sources of energy consumption

Source: forecast based on: carrier grade topologies; traffic analysis and indicators (ETSI TR 102530, ODYSSEE) and projected traffic load.

Sources: Information from vendors.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

potential impact on the wired network telit network topology and traffic profiles
Potential Impact on the Wired NetworkTELIT network topology and traffic profiles

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

potential impact on the wired network is there room for energy saving optimization
Potential Impact on the Wired NetworkIs There Room for Energy Saving Optimization?

Yearly Energy consumption estimation for TELIT

Home/access

Metro/Transport

Core

Room for Energy Saving Optimization

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

potential impact on the wired network e nergy consumption model outline
Potential Impact on the Wired NetworkEnergy consumption model outline

Source: R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, A. Carrega, F. Davoli, D. Suino, C. Vassilakis, A. Zafeiropoulos, “Cutting the Energy Bills of Internet Service Providers and Telecoms through Power Management: an Impact Analysis”, Elsevier Computer Networks, Special Issue on “Green Communication Networks”,

to appear

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

potential impact on the wired network estimated energy saving for the telit network
Potential Impact on the Wired NetworkEstimated energy saving for the TELIT network

DPS & Standby primitives

We suppose standby capabilities to be applied only where “alternative paths” are present.

DPS primitives only

Standby primitives only

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

potential impact on the wired network the grnet network case
Potential Impact on the Wired NetworkThe GRNET network case

Yearly Energy consumption estimation for GRNET

GRNET network does not have Access/Home parts

DPS & Standby primitives

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide40
Thank you for your attention!

Questions?

cvassilakis@grnet.gr

http://econet-project.eu

http://green.grnet.gr

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

backup slides
Backup slides

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

decomposing the energy consumption access technologies
Decomposing the Energy Consumption Access Technologies

Power consumption of DSL, HFC, PON, FTTN, PtP, WiMAX, and UMTS as a function of access rate with an oversubscription rate of 20. The technology used is fixed at 2010 vintage for all access rates.

Source: Baliga, J.; Ayre, R.; Hinton, K.; Tucker, R.S.; , "Energy consumption in wired and wireless access networks,"IEEE Communications Magazine,vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 70-77, June 2011.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide43

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Re-engineering

  • Adoption of pure optical switching architectures:
    • They can potentially provide terabits of bandwidth at much lower power dissipation than current network devices.
    • But their widespread adoption is still hindered by technological challenges: problems mainly regard the limited number of ports and the feasibility of suitable buffering schemes.
  • Decreasing feature sizes in semiconductor technology have contributed to performance gains:
    • allowing higher clock frequencies
    • designing improvements such as increased parallelism.
    • the same technology trends have also allowed for a decrease in voltage that has reduced the power per byte transmitted by half every two years, as suggested by Dennard’s scaling law.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide44

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Dynamic Adaptation: Understanding the Power-Performance Tradeoff

Modeling and control

  • Recently a simple model has been proposed by Bolla et al, which is based on classical queueingtheoryandallows representing the trade-off between energy and network performance in the presence of both AR and LPI capabilities.
  • The model is aimed at describing the behaviour of packet processing engines.
  • It is based on a Mx/D/1/SET queueing system.

TI

TB

Φ(t)

τconf

τon

τoff

Φa(Py)

Φt(Cx)

Φidle(Cx)

TR

t

Source: R. Bolla, R. Bruschi, A. Carrega, F. Davoli, “Green Network Technologies and the Art of Trading-off,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2011 Workshop on Green Communications and Networking, Shanghai, China, April 2001, pp. 301-306.

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide45

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Dynamic Adaptation: Understanding the Power-Performance Tradeoff

Modeling and control

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

slide46

A Taxonomy of Undertaken Approaches

Re-engineering: Optical Backbone Networks

The creation of optical paths (via DWDM) within optical backbone networks has been utilized for the dynamic establishment of high capacity circuits with reduced energy demands

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

standardization efforts
Standardization efforts
  • The European Union already published a number of Codes of Conduct
    • covering different categories of equipment, including broadband equipment, data centres, power supplies, UPS. The Code of Conduct on Energy Consumption of Broadband Equipment has been defined by the EU, which sets targets in reducing energy consumption in the access network
  • IEEE has also ratified the Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE) standard in October 2010, also known as IEEE 802.3az,
    • which is a set of enhancements to the twisted-pair and backplane Ethernet networking standards that will allow for more than 50% less power consumption during periods of low data activity, while retaining full compatibility with existing equipment.
  • ENERGY STAR is a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy that has defined the ENERGY STAR Product Specifications.
  • IETF has recently established the Energy Management (EMAN) Working Group.
  • Different interesting issues are under consideration by the Environmental Engineering Technical Body in ETSI
  • The Home Gateway Initiative (HGI) launched an internal task force called ”Energy Saving” with the objective of setting up requirements and specifications for energy efficiency in the home gateways
  • ITU-T Study Group 15 (Optical transport networks and access network infrastructures)
  • ITU-T created in September 2008 a new Focus Group, namely, FG ICT & Climate Change

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice

econet approach
ECONET approach

GN3 Green Networking: Advances in Environmental Policy and Practice