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Energy. 8 th Grade. Energy REVIEW. What is energy?. Energy – the ability to do work Potential – stored energy Kinetic – energy of motion Energy can change from one form to another. Energy can change from one type to another – Energy cycle. Conversions of Energy p.130.

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8th Grade

energy review
  • What is energy?
  • Energy – the ability to do work
    • Potential – stored energy
    • Kinetic – energy of motion
  • Energy can change from one form to another.
conversions of energy p 130
Conversions of Energy p.130
  • How can energy change?
  • Energy can change (convert) from one form to another
    • Sun to humans

Gas to car

  • Sun to gas
  • Coal to steam
  • Wind to toaster
types of energy
Types of energy
  • ______________
    • Energy that has the ability to do work
    • Example: Driveshaft on a car, Draw Bow String
  • ______________
    • Energy stored in the bonds between atoms and molecules
    • Examples: Food, Gasoline
  • _______________
    • Energy carried by moving electrons in an electrical conductor
    • Example: Electricity
types of energy1
Types of energy
  • _____________
    • Energy from Electromagnetic Waves
    • Example: the Sun
  • ________________
    • Energy related to temperature (due to moving atoms and molecules)
    • Example: Creation of Steam from water
  • _________________
    • Energy released when atoms are split (fission) or added (fusion)
    • Example: Nuclear reactor (fission) Stars (fusion)
types of energy2
Types of energy
  • Mechanical
    • Energy that has the ability to do work
    • Example: Driveshaft on a car, Draw Bow String
  • Chemical
    • Energy stored in the bonds between atoms and molecules
    • Examples: Food, Gasoline
  • Electrical
    • Energy carried by moving electrons in an electrical conductor
    • Example: Electricity
types of energy3
Types of energy
  • Radiant Energy
    • Energy from Electromagnetic Waves
    • Example: the Sun
  • Thermal Energy
    • Energy related to temperature (due to moving atoms and molecules)
    • Example: Creation of Steam from water
  • Nuclear Energy
    • Energy released when atoms are split (fission) or added (fusion)
    • Example: Nuclear reactor (fission) Stars (fusion)


  • Describe one of your energy uses to a table partner.
  • Where does that energy start in the energy cycle
  • What might be the pathway for that energy to get to you.
design a wind turbine
Design a wind turbine
  • Criteria:
  • Work with your table
  • Use materials available
  • Make it spin
  • All parts must be taken apart before the end of class
  • Please do not break or damage the materials
  • Complete reflection
reflection pg 131 below notes
Reflection – pg 131 (below notes)
  • Write down what DID and DID NOT work when building your windmill. (we will reference this later)
  • How would you explain this to a 3rd grader?
quick review work and power
Quick review: work and power
    • Force = mass x gravity
  • Work = Force x Distance
  • Power = Work


goal for today
Goal for today
  • Rebuild your windmill and lift as many washers as you can 0.5m
  • Calculate the Work and Power required to lift your maximum amount of washers
page 131 day 2 reflection
Page 131: Day 2 reflection
  • Work and power calculations.
  • What part of Design was the most difficult?
  • How might you go about your design differently the next time?
pg 133 134
Pg 133-134
  • Blade investigation
energy use notes pg 135
Energy Use Notes: Pg 135
  • How much energy do you use?
  • Energy – the amount of work done by an appliance
  • Power – the RATE at which energy is used
  • Electrical power is measured in Watts
energy use notes continues
Energy use notes continues
  • 1 Watt = the power needed to raise 100g, 1meter in 1 second
  • 1 kilowatt (kW) = 1,000 watts
  • Phantom/ vampire load – energy that appliances use even when they are turned off
pg 135 below notes
pg 135 (below notes)
  • Write 3 things you genuinely learned from the reading
  • When done, start to copy down the data table on page 136
below data table
Below data table
  • Answer questions 1-7 from the Kill-A-Watt lab sheet.
conclusion questions
Conclusion questions -
  • What was the largest power user?
  • Were you surprised by any of the appliances?
  • Will this change at all how you might use electricity?
ohm s law pg 137
Ohm’s Law pg 137
  • What is Ohm’s law and how do you use it?
  • Current
    • The FLOW of electrons in a wire
    • Measured in amperes (A)
  • Voltage
    • The PRESSURE available to move electrons
    • Measured in volts (V)
ohm s law
Ohm’s Law
  • Resistance
    • The opposition to the flow of electricity
    • Caused by friction
    • Measured in ohms ( Ω )
  • Ohm’s Law
    • Voltage = (current) (resistance)
    • V= I x R
    • V = A xΩ
ohms law practice
Ohms law practice
  • Complete the practice questions below the circuit picture on page 138. PLEASE do all questions. Thank you!
  • When done, explain the relationship between I, V, and R in this picture. (below your practice questions)
fusion vs fission
Fusion vs. Fission


  • Combining of smaller elements
  • Occurs in Nature
  • Produces many radioactive waves
  • Fuel is Hydrogen


  • Breaking of larger elements
  • Does not occur naturally
  • Little radioactive waves produced
  • Fuel is Uranium
fission notes pg 139
Fission notes pg 139
  • How is energy produced through nuclear fission?
  • Splitting of an atom’s nucleus into two smaller nuclei
  • Uranium-235 hit with a neutron
  • U-235 splits into two smaller nuclei and two neutrons
  • Those neutrons hit more U-235 setting off a chain reaction
  • As nuclei split, energy is released as heat
wrap up
  • Discuss with a partner then write in your notes:
    • What are two differences between fission and fusion?
    • Do the benefits of energy generation from nuclear fission outweigh the risks? Why or Why not?
    • If you were the POTUS what would your energy plan be concerning nuclear energy?
solar energy notes pg
Solar Energy Notes pg.

How does passive solar energy work?

  • The sun radiates infrared waves or thermal energy to Earth
  • This thermal energy heats Earth
passive solar example notes
Passive Solar Example Notes
  • When we use the sun to heat things directly, we are using passive solar power
  • This is a solar oven
daytime winter passive solar power
Daytime Winter Passive Solar Power
  • Passive Solar Power can also heat homes
active solar energy
Active Solar Energy

How does solar energy create electricity?

  • The sun also provides light energy in the form of visible light waves
active solar energy1
Active solar energy
  • Solar cells on solar panels convert this light energy into electricity
active solar energy2
Active solar energy
  • Sunlight hits silicon on the solar panels and makes electrons move
  • The moving electrons create electricity
sight selection
Sight Selection
  • You have been commissioned to build a Solar Powered House in a specific area about 3 kilometers in square area
  • You can use either Active or Passive Solar Power or both
  • You must answer the following 3 questions about your placement:
    • Why did you choose that sight for your home and which direction does it face?
    • What type of Solar Power you are using?
    • What more information would be useful?
wrap up1
  • Share your design with a person who is at a different table:
  • Answer the following:
    • Why did you pick your sight selection?
    • Did your partner convince you that there is a better sight?
homework due friday
Homework – Due Friday
  • Everyone:
  • Read pages 370-374
  • Questions 1c, 2c, 3b, 3c
  • Spicy for extra credit:
  • What lead to the nuclear emergencies at Chernobyl, 3 Mile Island, and in Japan? (points depends on quality of answer)
  • Coal is formed from plant remains
  • Coal has potential, chemical energy
  • Power plants burn coal turning the chemical energy into thermal energy
  • Burning coal heats water
  • Thermal energy turns into kinetic energy of moving water molecules (steam)

Steam turns the turbine

  • The turbine turns the generator and makes electricity
natural gas
Natural gas
  • Natural gas and oil are formed from remains of algae and small animals
natural gas1
Natural gas
  • Natural gas or oil burns and heats water
  • Water creates steam

Steam turns turbine

  • Turbine turns generator
  • Generator makes electricity

Hydropower uses flowing water to produce electricity

  • Ford dam on the Mississippi River in St. Paul
  • Provided electricity to Ford plant

Water flows through dam

  • Water turns a turbine
  • Turbine turns a generator
  • Generator makes electricity
  • Biofuels are fuels made from living things
  • Burned to produce energy
  • Biofuels burn, heat water, make steam
  • Steam turns turbine, turbine turns generator, generator makes electricity
  • Geothermal energy uses Earth’s heat
  • Hot springs
  • Pipes are drilled into the crust
  • Liquid is pumped down
  • Hot liquid/ steam comes up
  • Steam turns turbine, generator
  • Electricity is produced
pros and cons


  • Coal
  • Natural Gas
  • Nuclear
  • Solar
  • Hydro power
  • Biofuel
  • Geothermal
Pros and Cons

What are the pros and cons of generating electricity through different methods?

  • Read the articles and use your notes to compile a list of positives and a list of challenges based on the fuel source that you are given
  • We will report out on Tuesday so that all students can gain the knowledge.
requirements for pros and cons
Requirements for Pros and Cons
  • Total of 9 positives or challenges based on current research and data
  • 2 quotes from a primary source. One concerning a positive and one covering a challenge
  • 3 ideas that you may test to make your energy source more efficient, run cleaner, or lower the cost of transferring the raw material into a more useful energy source.
  • You will create a poster to present the information on your energy source.
  • You have the next two class periods. It is due by the end of class on Tuesday.
carbon cycle game
Carbon cycle game
  • Background:

You are a carbon atom. You will track your movement through the carbon cycle as you move between the lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere.

  • Start at your station
  • Write the name and how you exists in that form.
  • Roll the dice and move to the next station.
  • Example:
carbon cycle


  • Hydrosphere
  • Biosphere
  • Lithosphere
  • Carbon sources - release carbon
  • Carbon sinks – absorb carbon
Carbon Cycle

What is the carbon cycle?

greenhouse effect
Greenhouse effect

How is the greenhouse effect related to energy?

Greenhouse effect

Our atmosphere acts like a blanket that insulates Earth and keeps it warm

Without any greenhouse effect, Earth’s average temp would be OoF instead of 57 oF

greenhouse effect1
Greenhouse effect

Greenhouse gases

CO2 – carbon dioxide

CH4 – methane

N2O – nitrous oxide

CFCs – chlorofluorocarbons

answers to yellow packet
Answers to yellow packet

1. Sun

2. Earth’s temp changes

3. It would be very cold – zero degrees

4. -9.

CH4 – methane – staying the same

N2O – nitrous oxide - increasing

CFC 12 – chlorofluorocarbons - decreasing

CFC 11 – chlorofluorocarbons - decreasing

CO2 – carbon dioxide – increasing

Halocarbons – CClFI – staying the same

10. CO2, N2O

11. CH4, halocarbons, CFCs