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Chapter 8 “The New Nation”

Chapter 8 “The New Nation”

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Chapter 8 “The New Nation”

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  1. Chapter 8“The New Nation” 1786-1800

  2. The Crisis of the 1780s

  3. The Crisis of the 1780s Economic Crisis • Origins of the Revolution: • Shortage of goods resulting from the British Blockade • Demand for supplies by the army and militias • Flood of paper money resulting in inflation

  4. 1784- country in deep economic depression • Country was already in debt before depression Creditors owed more than 50 million Congress was not allowed to raise taxes State taxed residents

  5. State Remedies Radicals called for regulation of the economy farmers and debtors pressed for legal tender laws. • would impose a paper currency at face value • seven states enacted such laws • the programs worked pretty well without problems

  6. Rhode Island “To Relieve the Distressed” • 1786 – enacted radical currency law • The law declared the paper currency legal tender to all debts • If creditors refused to accept a debt, then the currency could be given to a judge to deem the debt as PAID. **The state elected high tariffs barriers to curb imports and protected domestic industries.

  7. Mov’t towards a new national government • 1786 Virginian legislature invited all states to appoint delegates to a convention • Twelve delegates from five states attended – Annapolis Convention • Passed a resolution requesting Confederation Congress call on all states to send delegates to a national convention that might "render the constitution of the federal government adequate to the exigencies of the union“ • Congress endorsed a Philadelphia convention to be held in May 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation • Conservatives wanted to strengthen national government

  8. The New Constitution

  9. The New Constitution • May, 1787 • 55 men from 12 states (Rhode Island didn't attend) met at Pennsylvania state house in Philadelphia • Several prominent men were missing • (Thomas Jefferson and John Adams) • There were land speculators and merchants also present • No minorities or women were present • The Constitution was basically framed by white men who represented America's social and economic elite (Patriots and Republicans)

  10. The Constitutional Convention • Washington chaired the meeting • Meeting were kept secret to ensure debate • James Madison took notes which served as the transcript of the meeting

  11. Virginia Plan proposal called for national legislature in which the states would be represented according to population • Was presented at the convention and set the agenda • Proposed scrapping of the Confederation in favor of a "Consolidated government" with the power of tax and enforcing of laws • Would reduce states to nothing more than counties • House of Representatives would be elected by popular vote and senators would be chosen by state legislators • The Senate would lead, control foreign affairs and appoint officials • With that, an executive (president) and national judiciary would form a Council Revision with the power to veto state and federally • Main opposition to the Virginia Plan came from delegates of small states

  12. Led to…. • The New Jersey Plan • proposed increase in the powers of the central government, but retained a single-house Congress in which the states were equally represented • The New Jersey Plan caused a split in delegate votes which lead to the Great Compromise which proposed representation proportional to population in the House and equal representation in the Senate • Allowed the creation of a strong government • Part of this agreement was a second fundamental compromise that brought together the North and South • North (commerce clause) if the South agreed with the clause they agreed to count five slaves as the equivalent of three freemen (three-fifths rule) • September 17, 1787 the document was approved

  13. Ratifying the New Constitution • Supporters of the new constitution were known as Federalists(nationalists) • Anti-Federalists argued against their opponents that the Articles of Confederation already provided for a federal government of balanced power between the states and the Union and that the Constitution would replace it with a national government • Believed that the constitution granted too much power to the central government which weakened the autonomy of communities and states • Many argued a republican government could only work for small countries • Rhode Island argued that the basic rights of property would not be protected

  14. Pennsylvania • First state to convene a ratification convention on November 1787 • Convention in favor of the Constitution • supported by artisans and commercial farmers • linked the constitution to growth of a commercial society

  15. Massachusetts 1788 (most important of the conventions): • Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, George and Connecticut voted to ratify the constitution • Opponents of the ratification included supporters of Shays' Rebellion • (small majority) • Anti-Federalists (John Hancock and Samuel Adams) • On February 16 the convention voted in favor of the ratification • Rhode Island rejected the constitution in March but several other states joined the Union with the promise of a Bill of Rights included in the ratification

  16. Bill of Rights • Considered by the Constitutional Convention then rejected originally • Anti-Federalists proposed over 200 potential amendments with the sole purpose of protecting the rights of the people against the power of the central government • 1789 James Madison transformed these proposed amendments into a series of proposals • Congress passed twelve of the amendments and sent them to the states • Only ten of them became the Bill of Rights in 1791

  17. The First Administration

  18. The First Administration • George Washington became the first president of the U.S on April 30,1789 He was then re-elected without opposition in 1792 and served until 1797 • His nature was reserved and solemn yet he chose to ride around in a lavish carriage • He wanted to adhere to the constitution • Appointed Thomas Jefferson (secretary of state) Alexander Hamilton(Treasury), Henry Knox (War Department) and Edmund Randolph(Attorney General) • He consulted with his cabinet regularly

  19. Washington's Cabinet Members. (From left to right) George Washington, Henry Knox, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, Edmund Randolph.

  20. An Active Federal Judiciary • Most important piece of legislation- Judiciary Act of 1789 which established the Supreme Court and other federal courts • Congress established a high court of six justices and established three circuit and thirteen district courts • Localists successfully fought to retain the various bodies of law in the states • The act gave federal courts limited jurisdiction • Judicial Review gave federal courts the right to review and determine whether or not acts passed by Congress or state legislature were constitutional.

  21. Hamilton’s Controversial Fiscal Program • Fiscal and economic affairs pressed upon the new government • The government took power in a virtually bankrupted period • Tariff of 1789 was suppose to increase revenue and not protect American manufacturers from foreign competition • Hamilton planned to address Revolutionary war debt • Proposed to charter a national bank (Bank of the United States) • Bank would be a public corporation funded by the Treasury • Congress approve and the bank was established in 1791 • Proposed increased tariff protection • His plan would restore the financial health of the U.S

  22. The Beginnings of Foreign Policy • Federalist political coalition strained by indifference over fiscal policy (Southern agrarians and Northern capitalists) French Revolution of 1789 • Reign of Terror 1793 (hundreds of aristocrats were executed) • The execution of King Louis XVI and war between Britain and France divided American opinion • The issue of whether or not America would have to aid France in war with Britain due to the Franco-American alliance of 1778 • Caused Washington and cabinet members to agree upon neutrality (neutrality =windfall profit) • Highly unlikely France would need aid from America during the war

  23. The U.S. and Indian People • Americans tried to treat West Indian tribes as conquered people after the Revolutionary war • The Constitution did not include an Indian policy • 1790 Congress passed the Intercourse Act • through this act trade and intercourse could be regulated with the Indians • declared public treaties between Indians and the U.S the only legal means at which their land could be obtained • The government wanted Indian land in the West • They were unsuccessful in controlling settlers around the Ohio river • Americans usually ended up fighting Indians for their land (Shawnees and Delawares)

  24. Spanish Florida & British Canada • The position of the United States in the West was complicated even more by the hostility of Spain and Britain who controlled adjoining territories • Spain acquired the French claim to Louisiana by the end of the Seven Years' War (territory also included California, the Gulf Coast and Florida) • Spain held an anti-American policy making it impossible for trade to take place through the port of New Orleans

  25. Domestic & International Crisis • The situations with Spain, the Indians and the British involvement in the fur trade caused protest • Spain gave bribes to settlers who quit the Union and moved to Canada or Florida • The British confiscated American cargo from ships (causing ruin for merchants) • Rebellion in the summer of 1794 • Farmers protested taxes put on whiskey (Whiskey Rebellion) • Washington established a federal army of 13,000 men and ordered the occupation of Pennsylvania • The Treaty of Greenville was a result of the American defeat of the Indian Confederacy • Twelve Indian nations ceded a large portion of territory to the United States

  26. Jay & Pickney’s Treaties • American occupation of the West encouraged Britain to compromise with the United States so that they could concentrate on defeating the French • Chief Justice John Jay met in London to arrange a settlement • Jay signed an agreement (Jay’s Treaty) that forced the British to withdraw from American territory • The treaty also limited American trade with the British • The treaty eventually made it to the public which stirred heated debate • The treaty was a symbol of American neutrality during war • The Jeffersonians were enraged over the treaty • Hamilton eventually ratified the agreement

  27. Washington’s Farewell Address ***He argued not for American isolation, but rather for American disinterest in the affairs of Europe.***

  28. Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans

  29. The Rise of Political Parties • The election of 1796 established two primary political factions • Federalists(Federalism belief is a shared government) • Republicans (belief in limited government) • The two political factions had an important role in the presidential elections of 1796 • Partisan organization was strongest in the Middle states while political forces were weak in New England and the South • There was no party discipline (the new administration was divided)

  30. The Adams Presidency • Adams attempted to follow the examples of Washington • Retained most of Washington's appointees benefited from the tensions between France and the United States • French suspended relations with the U.S. after the Jay treaty • Adams sent an American delegation to France • The French demanded bribery before any negotiations could take place • The XYZ Affair confirmed the incident and outraged Americans • Adam's and the Federalists prepared the country for War • Fear of a French invasion soon declined after the British naval victory in 1798 • Quasi-War (undeclared naval war) between United States and France continued

  31. The Alien and Sedition Acts • Congress passed acts that severely limited freedom of speech and press and threatened foreign liberty in the U.S. • Naturalization Act extended period of residence required for U.S. citizenship • Alien Actand Alien Enemies Act authorized the imprisonment or deportation of suspected aliens during wartime • Sedition Act provided heavy fines and imprisonment for anyone speaking or writing against the government • Federalists used these acts to defeat the Republicans • Republicans opposed acts

  32. The Revolution of 1800 • Alien and Sedition Acts overthrown by Jeffersonian Republicans • Adam's presidential term coming to end • Federalists were divided • French wanted to settle dispute with United States • Adam's accepted the settlement but angered Federalists • With the Federalists divided the Jeff. Republicans took over the state governments of Pennsylvania and New York • The presidential campaign of 1800 was the first with two parties • Jeff. Republicans favored state rights and liberty • Federalistswere divided between a strong central government and public order

  33. Democratic Political Culture • Custom of celebrating Independence Day first took place in Philadelphia • 1800 Fourth of July was the nation's most important holiday • Increase in suffrage • Women, minorities and a portion of free men were excluded from voting • Increased competition between the Federalists and Republicans • promoted a universal white manhood suffrage • caused an increase in turn out at polls in all states

  34. Rise & Glory of America

  35. American Artists • First American artist Benjamin West achieved prominence in Europe with his paintings of his native Pennsylvania • John Singleton Copley (Loyalist) famous for his portrait of Samuel Adams • Charles Wilson Peale famous for his wartime propaganda and a portrait of Washington

  36. Benjamin West

  37. John Singleton Copley