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Chapter 7 Attitudes. By Michael R. Solomon. Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Edition. Opening Vignette: Soccer. How do Jan and Terri differ in their attitudes toward soccer? Jan and Nancy are both soccer fans. How are they different?

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chapter 7 attitudes

Chapter 7Attitudes

By Michael R. Solomon

Consumer Behavior

Buying, Having, and Being

Sixth Edition

opening vignette soccer
Opening Vignette: Soccer
  • How do Jan and Terri differ in their attitudes toward soccer?
  • Jan and Nancy are both soccer fans. How are they different?
  • Which one of the three is the most likely target for ads promoting soccer?
  • Is Nancy likely to convert to become a soccer fan?
the power of attitudes
The Power of Attitudes
  • Attitude:
    • A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues
    • Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an object (Ao).
    • Attitudes are lasting because they tend to endure over time.
the functions of attitudes
The Functions of Attitudes
  • Functional Theory of Attitudes:
    • Attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person (i.e., they are determined by a person’s motives)
  • Katz’s Attitude Functions
    • Utilitarian function
    • Value-expressive function
    • Ego-defensive function
    • Knowledge function
addressing smoking attitudes
Addressing Smoking Attitudes
  • This Norwegian ad addresses young people’s smoking attitudes by arousing strong negative feelings. The ad reads (left panel) “Smokers are more sociable than others.” (Right panel): “While it lasts.”
the abc model of attitudes
The ABC Model of Attitudes
  • Affect:
    • The way a consumer feels about an attitude object
  • Behavior:
    • Involves the person’s intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object
  • Cognition:
    • The beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object
  • Hierarchy of Effects:
    • A fixed sequence of steps that occur en route to an attitude
attitude hierarchies
Attitude Hierarchies
  • The Standard Learning Hierarchy:
    • Consumer approaches a product decision as a problem-solving process
  • The Low-Involvement Hierarchy:
    • Consumer does not have strong initial preference
    • Consumer acts on limited knowledge
    • Consumer forms an evaluation only after product trial
  • The Experiential Hierarchy:
    • Consumers act on the basis of their emotional reactions
experiential hierarchy
Experiential Hierarchy
  • Emotional Contagion:
    • Emotions expressed by the communicator of a marketing message affect the attitude toward the product
  • Cognitive-Affective Model:
    • Argues that an affective judgment is the last step in a series of cognitive processes
  • Independence Hypothesis:
    • Takes the position that affect and cognition involve two separate, independent systems
smith and wollensky
Smith and Wollensky
  • This ad for New York’s famous Smith & Wollensky restaurant emphasizes that marketers and others associated with a product or service are often more involved with it than are their consumers.
product attitudes don t tell the whole story
Product Attitudes Don’t Tell the Whole Story
  • Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad):
    • A predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure occasion
  • Ads Have Feelings Too:
    • Three emotional dimensions:
      • Pleasure, arousal, and intimidation
    • Specific types of feelings that can be generated by an ad
      • Upbeat feelings: Amused, delighted, playful
      • Warm feelings: Affectionate, contemplative, hopeful
      • Negative feelings: Critical, defiant, offended
discussion question
Discussion Question
  • Sexually suggestive scenes like the one depicted in this ad for Union Bay clothing can generate feelings that affect brand attitudes.
  • What specific types of feelings or responses can this type of advertisement elicit? How will this scene affect the attitude toward the ad?
forming attitudes
Forming Attitudes
  • Not All Attitudes are Created Equal:
    • Levels of Commitment to an Attitude: The degree of commitment is related to the level of involvement with an attitude object
      • Compliance
      • Identification
      • Internalization
    • The Consistency Principle:
      • Principle of Cognitive Consistency: Consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings or behaviors to be consistent with other experiences
levels of attitudinal commitment
Levels of Attitudinal Commitment
  • By describing Cadillac as “my company,” the woman in this ad exhibits a high level of attitudinal commitment to her employer.
forming attitudes cont
Forming Attitudes (cont.)
  • Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony among Attitudes:
    • Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: When a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, he or she will take action to reduce the dissonance by changing an attitude or modifying a behavior.
  • Self-Perception Theory:
    • People maintain consistency by inferring that they must maintain a positive attitude toward a product they have bought or consumed
  • Foot-in-the-door technique:
    • Sales strategy based on the observation that consumers will comply with a request if they have first agreed to comply with a smaller request
attitudinal commitment
Attitudinal Commitment
  • This ad for a magazine illustrates that consumers often distort information so that it fits with what they already believe or think they know.
social judgment theory
Social Judgment Theory
  • Social Judgment Theory:
    • People assimilate new information about Ao’s based on what they already know or feel.
    • Attitudes of Acceptance and Rejection: People differ in the information they find acceptable or unacceptable.
      • Assimilation effect:Messages that fall within the latitude of acceptance tend to be seen as more consistent with one’s position than they actually are
      • Contrast effect:Messages falling within the latitude of rejection tend to be seen as being farther from one’s position than they actually are
balance theory
Balance Theory
  • Triad:
    • An attitude structure consisting of three elements
      • (1) A person and his/her perceptions of
      • (2) an attitude object, and
      • (3) some other person or object
  • Unit relation:
    • An element is seen as belonging to or being part of the other
  • Sentiment relation:
    • Two elements are linked because one has expressed a preference for the other
  • Marketing Applications of Balance Theory
    • Celebrity endorsements
discussion question21
Discussion Question
  • Consumer researchers understand that consumers like to “bask in the reflected glory” of successful college athletic programs by wearing merchandise adorned with logos like the ones on the right.
  • How do the different attitude theories explain this consumer phenomenon?
attitude models
Attitude Models
  • Attitude Models:
    • Specify the different elements that might work together to influence people’s evaluations of Ao’s
  • Multiattribute Models:
    • Model that assumes a consumer’s Ao will depend on the beliefs he or she has about several attributes toward the object
  • Multiattribute Models Specify 3 Elements:
    • Attributes
    • Beliefs
    • Importance Weights
attitude models23
Attitude Models
  • Choosing products:
    • We often choose products because of their association with a certain lifestyle.
  • Goal of Lifestyle Marketing:
    • To allow consumers to pursue their chosen ways to enjoy life and express their social identities.
  • Adopting Lifestyle Marketing:
    • Implies that we must look at patterns of behavior to understand consumers
the fishbein model
The Fishbein Model
  • Measures 3 components of attitude:
    • (1) Salient Beliefs
    • (2) Object-attribute linkages
    • (3) Evaluation
  • Assumptions of the Fishbein Model:
    • Ability to specify all relevant choice attributes
    • Identification, weight, and summing of attributes
  • Affect referral:
    • A process by which a consumer’s overall attitude is formed by an overall affective response
the fishbein equation
The Fishbein Equation
  • The Basic Formula:

Aijk = ΣβijkIik

    • Where:
      • i = attribute
      • j = brand
      • k = consumer
      • I = the importance weight given attribute I by consumer k
      • β = consumer k’s belief regarding the extent to which brand j possesses attribute I
      • A = a particular consumer’s (k’s) attitude score for brand j
strategic applications of the multiattribute model
Strategic Applications of the Multiattribute Model
  • Capitalize on Relative Advantage
  • Strengthen Perceived Product/Attribute Linkages
  • Add a New Attribute
  • Influence Competitors’ Ratings
using attitudes to predict behavior
Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior
  • In many cases, knowledge of a person’s attitude is not a very good predictor of behavior
  • Questionable link between attitude and behavior
    • Consumers love a commercial, but don’t buy the product
  • The Extended Fishbein Model
    • Called the Theory of Reasoned Action
    • Contains several important additions to the original, which improve its ability to predict behavior
the theory of reasoned action
The Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Intentions Versus Behavior
  • Social Pressure:
    • Subjective Norm (SN)
      • Normative Belief (NB): Belief that others believe an action should or should not be taken
      • Motivation to Comply (MC): Degree to which consumers take into account anticipated reactions
  • Attitude Toward Buying:
    • Attitude toward the act of buying (Aact):
      • How someone feels about buying due to the perceived consequences of a purchase
obstacles to predicting behavior in the theory of reasoned action
Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Model is misapplied
  • Other obstacles:
    • Model deals with actual behavior, not outcomes
    • Some outcomes are beyond the consumer’s control
    • The assumption of behavior as intentional may be invalid in some cases
    • Attitude measures don’t correspond to the behavior they are supposed to predict
    • Too large a time frame between attitude measure and behavior measure
    • Attitude accessibility perspective:
      • Behavior is a function of the person’s immediate perceptions of the Ao
cultural roadblocks to the theory of reasoned action
Cultural Roadblocks to the Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Roadblocks that diminish the universality of the theory
    • Model was designed to predict voluntary acts
    • The relative impact of subject norms varies across cultures
    • The model assumes that consumers are actively thinking ahead and planning behaviors
    • A consumer that forms an intention claims that he or she is in control of his or her actions
trying to consume
Trying to Consume
  • Theory of Trying to Consume
    • States that the criterion of behavior in the reasoned action model should be replaced with trying to reach a goal
  • Sample issues that might be addressed:
    • Past frequency
    • Recency
    • Beliefs
    • Evaluations of consequences
    • The process
    • Expectations of success and failure
    • Subjective norms toward trying
tracking attitudes over time
Tracking Attitudes over Time
  • Attitude-tracking program:
    • An single-attitude survey is a snapshot in time
    • A program allows researchers to analyze attitude trends during an extended period of time
  • Ongoing Tracking Studies
    • Attitude tracking involves administration of a survey at regular intervals (e.g. Gallup Poll, Yankelovich Monitor)
    • This activity is valuable for making strategic decisions
attitude changes over time
Attitude Changes over Time
  • Changes to Look for over Time:
    • Changes in different age groups:
      • Attitudes change with age
      • Historical effects
    • Scenarios about the future:
      • Consumers tracked in terms of future plans, confidence in economy, and so on
    • Identification of change agents:
      • Social phenomena can alter people’s attitudes
changing attitudes
Changing Attitudes

Percentage of 16- to 24-year-olds who agree “We must take radical action to cut down on how we use our cars.”

Figure 7.4