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Topic 7 – Language attitudes. What is your language attitude?. Which language do you think is the most beautiful? Which language do you like most? Which language do you think is the most valuable? If you were given a second chance, would you want to be a Cantonese/PTH/English speaker?.

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what is your language attitude
What is your language attitude?
  • Which language do you think is the most beautiful?
  • Which language do you like most?
  • Which language do you think is the most valuable?
  • If you were given a second chance, would you want to be a Cantonese/PTH/English speaker?
your language attitude
Your language attitude
  • Use the speech rating scale sheet provided, listen to three different speakers and rate them on 13 personality traits.
  • How did you make the judgment?
language attitude test
Language Attitude Test
  • The test was conducted in 2001 with 1048 F.4 students from 28 different secondary schools
  • The subjects were the first cohort of students under the mandatory mother tongue education policy
results appendix
Results (appendix)
  • Solidarity – Cantonese highest; PTH lowest
  • Competence – English highest, PTH lowest
  • Personal attractiveness – English highest, PTH lowest
  • Aggressiveness – English highest, Cantonese lowest
implications
Implications
  • How do the results reflect on the roles of the three spoken languages in HK?
  • What contributed to these attitude patterns?
history of emi education in hong kong
History of EMI Education in Hong Kong
  • 1935 - 42,000 EMI students
  • 1958 - 54.9% (EMI); 45.1% (CMI)
  • 1965 - 71% (EMI); 29% (CMI)
  • 1970 - 76.7% (EMI); 23.3% (CMI)
  • 1972 - Chinese Campaign; 1974 - Chinese became an official language
  • 1985 - 90.5% (EMI); 9.5% (CMI)
  • Up till 1997 – 90.8% (EMI); 9.2% (CMI)
questions
Questions
  • How could EMI Education gain popularity so quickly over the past years?
  • Why did EMI education work well in the old days but not in the last 15 years?
questions to ask
Questions to ask

At What Cost??

llewellyn report 1982
Llewellyn Report (1982)
  • It is a matter ofwhether to jeopardise the educational progress of the majority (and perhaps endanger the culture itself) in order to guarantee a sufficient number of competent English speakers; or to value the whole group (and in so doing conserve the culture) but accept the loss in capacity to deal with the international environment and hence a possible decline in the economic prosperity
what policy to adopt
What policy to adopt?
  • Universal EMI
  • Universal CMI
  • Largely CMI / some EMI
  • Some CMI / Largely EMI
  • School-based decision
stages of development in medium of instruction policy
Stages of development in medium of instruction policy
  • 1) 1974 - 1984 : laissez-faire
  • 2) 1985 - 1997 :

positive discrimination in favour of

mother tongue instruction

  • 3) After 1997 : compulsory Mother Tongue Education
why mother tongue education policy
Why Mother Tongue Education Policy?
  • Mixed-code teaching is detrimental to language learning
  • Students under-performed both in languages and academic subjects under universal EMI education policy
why mother tongue education policy15
Why Mother Tongue Education Policy?
  • Compulsory education in 1976 - mass education done in a foreign language ended up in undesirable learning outcomes
why mother tongue education policy16
Why Mother Tongue Education Policy?
  • EMI education benefits only students whose English standard is above the threshold level
why mother tongue education policy17
Why Mother Tongue Education Policy?
  • Not all students need a high level of English for their later life
before the implementation of mother tongue education policy
Before theimplementation of Mother Tongue Education Policy
  • EMI - 421 secondary schools (i.e.90.8%)
  • Reality - mixed-code
  • CMI schools rejected by parents
the mother tongue education policy
The Mother Tongue Education Policy
  • Policy imposed in Sept. 1997
  • Starting from Sept 1998, all secondary schools became CMI by default
  • EMI status: special application required
  • 124 secondary schools applied
  • 100 schools succeeded
  • 24 rejected
the mother tongue education policy20
The Mother Tongue Education Policy
  • 20 schools appealed
  • 14 won
  • 114 EMI schools altogether
mother tongue education policy
Mother Tongue Education Policy
  • Biliterate & Trilingual Policy
  • Cantonese - the main medium of instruction
  • Putonghua - a core subject for both Primary and Secondary
  • English learnt as a subject except in 114 EMI schools
  • No mixed-code is allowed
scmp survey 1997
SCMP survey (1997)
  • 1000 parents and students interviewed
  • Learning in Mother Tongue is more effective - 55%
  • English standard would further decline - 73%
  • Mother Tongue Education Policy would diminish students’ competitiveness - 50%
scmp survey 199723
SCMP survey (1997)
  • Accept mixed-code teaching - 80%
  • People believe in the educational value of Mother Tongue Education. What they don’t believe in is that Chinese will have higher market values than English
what is the best policy
What is the best policy??
  • Current policy?
  • Universal mother tongue education for all schools?
  • Schools choose their own MOI?
  • One school, two systems?
  • Different languages for different subjects?