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Attitudes Chapter 7

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  1. Attitudes Chapter 7

  2. Affect Cognition Attitude The Power of Attitudes • Attitude: • A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues • Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an object (Ao). • Attitudes are lasting because they tend to endure over time.

  3. The Functions of Attitudes • Functional Theory of Attitudes: • Attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person (i.e., they are determined by a person’s motives) • Katz’s Attitude Functions • Utilitarian function: obtain rewards / avoid punishments • Value-expressive function: express identify to others • Ego-defensive function: self-protection • Knowledge function: simplifies decisions, e.g., Brand loyalty

  4. Addressing Smoking Attitudes • This Norwegian ad addresses young people’s smoking attitudes by arousing strong negative feelings. The ad reads (left panel) “Smokers are more sociable than others.” (Right panel): “While it lasts.”

  5. The ABC Model of Attitudes • Affect: • The way a consumer feels about an attitude object • Behavior: • Involves the person’s intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object • Cognition: • The beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object • Hierarchy of Effects: • A fixed sequence of steps that occur en route to an attitude

  6. Hierarchy of Effects Figure 7.1

  7. Hierarchy of Effects • Standard Learning Hierarchy • Results in strong brand loyalty • Assumes high consumer involvement • Low-Involvement Hierarchy • Consumer does not have strong brand preference • Consumers swayed by simple stimulus-response connections • Experiential Hierarchy • Consumers’ hedonic motivations and moods • Emotional contagion • Cognitive-affective model vs. independence hypothesis

  8. Product Attitudes Don’t Tell the Whole Story • Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad): • A predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure occasion • Ads Have Feelings Too: • Three emotional dimensions: • Pleasure, arousal, and intimidation • Specific types of feelings that can be generated by an ad • Upbeat feelings: Amused, delighted, playful • Warm feelings: Affectionate, contemplative, hopeful • Negative feelings: Critical, defiant, offended

  9. Ads Have Feelings Too • Commercials evoke emotion • Pleasure • Arousal • Intimidation

  10. Attitude Toward the Ad • We form attitudes toward objects other than the product that can influence our product selections • We often form product attitudes from its ads • Aad: attitude toward advertiser + evaluations of ad execution + ad evoked mood + ad arousal effects on consumer + viewing context

  11. Forming Attitudes (cont.) • Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony among Attitudes: • Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: When a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, he or she will take action to reduce the dissonance by changing an attitude or modifying a behavior. • Self-Perception Theory: • People maintain consistency by inferring that they must maintain a positive attitude toward a product they have bought or consumed • Foot-in-the-door technique: • Sales strategy based on the observation that consumers will comply with a request if they have first agreed to comply with a smaller request

  12. Levels of Attitudinal Commitment • By describing Cadillac as “my company,” the woman in this ad exhibits a high level of attitudinal commitment to her employer.

  13. Social Judgment Theory • We assimilate new information about attitude objects in light of what we already know/feel • Initial attitude = frame of reference • Latitudes of acceptance and rejection • Assimilation and contrast effects • “Choosy mothers choose Jif peanut butter”

  14. Balance Theory • Triad: • An attitude structure consisting of three elements • (1) A person and his/her perceptions of • (2) an attitude object, and • (3) some other person or object • Unit relation: • An element is seen as belonging to or being part of the other • Sentiment relation: • Two elements are linked because one has expressed a preference for the other • Marketing Applications of Balance Theory • Celebrity endorsements

  15. Alex Larry Earring + Alex + + Larry Earring Alex + Alex + + Larry Earring + Larry Earring O Alex Larry Earring Figure 7.2: Balance Theory

  16. Balance Theory (Cont’d) • Marketing Applications • “Basking in reflected glory” • Unit relation with popular product = positive sentiment relation in other people’s triads • Celebrity endorsers of products

  17. Multi-attribute Attitude Model(Fishbein) BELIEF: • Salient beliefs (important attributes) • Strength of the belief (product’s score on attribute) EVALUATION: (attribute’s importance to you) ATTITUDE = SUM OF (SCORE ON ATTRIBUTE X IMPORTANCE OF ATTRIBUTE)

  18. Multi-attribute Attitude Models • Three elements • Attributes of AO(e.g., college) • e.g., Scholarly reputation • Beliefs about AO • e.g., University of North Carolina is strong academically • Importance weights • e.g., Stressing research opportunities over athletics

  19. The Theory of Reasoned Action By Fishbein et al to improve on Multiattriube model. • Includes subjective norms: how other people feel about the behavior. • Assesses the consumer’s attitude toward the overt behavior of purchasing the product rather than toward the object itself. • Uses consequences of the behavior rather than attributes of object.

  20. Extended Fishbein Model • Research: low correlation between reported attitude and actual behavior • We love commercials, yet still not buy! • Theory of reasoned action • Intentions vs. behavior • Conviction and past purchase behavior • Behavioral intentions • Social pressure • SN = NB + MC • Attitude toward act of buying

  21. Associative Network for Snickers Chocolate Bar Yummy Fattening Nuts Chocolate Give Cavities Dentist

  22. Activation at Dentist’s Office Yummy Fattening Nuts Snickers Bar Chocolate Give Cavities Dentist

  23. Attitude Formation Snickers Attitude Yummy Fattening Nuts Snickers Bar Chocolate Give Cavities Dentist

  24. Trying to Consume • Theory of trying • Criterion should be trying to reach goal • Intervening factors between intent and performance • Several new components to account for act of trying

  25. Theory of Trying Figure 7.3

  26. Tracking Attitudes over Time • Attitude-tracking program: • An single-attitude survey is a snapshot in time • A program allows researchers to analyze attitude trends during an extended period of time • Ongoing Tracking Studies • Attitude tracking involves administration of a survey at regular intervals (e.g. Gallup Poll, Yankelovich Monitor) • This activity is valuable for making strategic decisions