The Power of Attitudes Attitude: a lasting, general evaluation of people, objects, advertisements, or issues • Attitude object (AO) • Help to determine a number of preferences and actions
Functional Theory of Attitudes • Katz: attitudes exist because they serve some adaptive function UTILITARIAN FUNCTION: Relates to rewards and punishments VALUE-EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION: Expresses consumer’s values or self-concept EGO-DEFENSIVE FUNCTION: Protect ourselves from external threats or internal feelings KNOWLEDGE FUNCTION: Need for order, structure, or meaning
Functional Theory of Attitudes (cont.) • Example: study of football fans identified three clusters:
ABC Model of Attitudes Attitude has three components: • Affect: the way a consumer feels about an attitude object. • Behavior: person’s intentions or actual behavior with regard to an attitude object. • Cognition: beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object.
Hierarchies of Effects • Impact/importance of attitude components depends on consumer’s motivation toward attitude object
Hierarchy of Effects • Standard Learning Hierarchy • Results in strong brand loyalty • Assumes high consumer involvement • Low-Involvement Hierarchy • Consumer does not have strong brand preference • Consumers swayed by simple stimulus-response connections • Experiential Hierarchy • Consumers’ hedonic motivations and moods • Emotional contagion • Cognitive-affective model versus independence hypothesis
Attitude Commitment Degree of commitment is related to level of involvement with attitude object INTERNALIZATION Highest level: deep-seeded attitudes become part of consumer’s value system IDENTIFICATION Mid-level: attitudes formed in order to conform to another person or group COMPLIANCE Lowest level: consumer forms attitude because it gains rewards or avoids punishments
Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony • Theory of cognitive dissonance: when a consumer is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, he will take action to resolve the “dissonance” • Example: Two cognitive elements about smoking: • “I know smoking causes cancer” • “I smoke cigarettes” • Consumer will resolve the dissonance by either disregarding the health consequences or by not smoking (i.e. changing attitude or behavior)
Self-Perception Theory • Self-perception theory: we use observations of our own behavior to determine what our attitudes are. FOOT-IN-THE-DOOR TECHNIQUE Consumer is more likely to comply with a request if he has first agreed to comply with a smaller request LOW-BALL TECHNIQUE Person is asked for a small favor and is informed after agreeing to it that it will be very costly. DOOR-IN-THE-FACE TECHNIQUE Person is first asked to do something extreme (which he refuses), then asked to do something smaller.
Social Judgment Theory • Social judgment theory: we assimilate new information about attitude objects in light of what we already know/feel • Initial attitude = frame of reference • Latitudes of acceptance and rejection • Assimilation and contrast effects • Example: “Choosy mothers choose Jif Peanut Butter”
Balance Theory • Balance theory: considers relations among elements a consumer might perceive as belonging together • Involves triad attitude structures • Attitudes can be positive or negative • Consumers strive for balanced/harmonious triad arrangements
Alex wants to date Larry; Alex has positive attitude toward Larry Larry wears earring; Larry has positive attitude toward earring Alex doesn’t like men who wear earrings; has negative attitude toward earrings Restoring Balance in a Triad
Multi-Attribute Attitude Models • Multi-attribute models: consumer’s attitudes toward an attitude object depends on beliefs she has about several or many attributes of the object • Three elements • Attributes of AO(e.g., college) • Example: scholarly reputation • Beliefs about AO • Example: University of North Carolina is strong academically • Importance weights • Example: values research over athletics
Fishbein Model • Aijk= ΣβijkIik • Overall Attitude Score = (consumer’s rating of each attribute for all brands) x (importance rating for that attribute)
Saundra’s College Decision Table 7.1
Extended Fishbein Model Theory of reasoned action: considers other elements of predicting behavior • Intentions versus behavior: measure behavioral intentions, not just intentions • Social pressure: acknowledges the power of other people in purchasing decision • Attitude toward buying: measure attitude toward the act of buying, not just attitude towards the product
Obstacles to Predicting Behavior Fishbein model’s weaknesses include: • Doesn’t deal with outcomes of behavior, including those beyond consumer’s control • Doesn’t consider unintentional behavior, such as impulsive acts or novelty seeking • Doesn’t consider that attitudes may not lead to consumption • Doesn’t consider the time frame between attitude measurement and behavior
Theory of Trying • Theory of trying: measures the reasoned action consumers take to reach a goal
Theory of Trying: Example of Consumer Trying to Lose Weight • Past frequency: How many times did he try to lose weight? • Recency: Did he try in the past week? • Beliefs: Does he believe he’d be healthier? • Evaluation of consequences: Does he believe his girlfriend would be happier if he loses weight? • Process: Does he believe the diet will make him feel depressed? • Expectations of success and failure: Does he believe he will succeed with the diet? • Subjective norms toward trying: Does he believe loved ones would approve of his efforts to lose weight?