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  1. Aim: Review for test on The Constitution and The Bill of Rights Make sure to bring a #2 pencil and a pen. Essay Topic: Supreme Court cases Extra Credit: Castlelearning (80 or better receives 5 points)

  2. 1. How does the Bill of Rights protect us as citizens? • Lists all the rights that we are entitled to. • -Places limits on government • -Free speech, press, religion • -protects against illegal search and seizure.

  3. 2. 13th, 14th & 15th amendments • 13th – abolished slavery (1865) • 14th –grants citizenship-equal protection under the law (1868) • 15th- black male suffrage (1870) • -Civil War or Reconstruction amendments.

  4. 3. Disagreement over ratification • Original Constitution did not have a Bill of Rights. • Anti-Federalist were afraid that there were not enough protections for our individual liberties.

  5. 4. Federalists & Anti-Federalists • Federalists- support ratification of the Constitution. • Anti-Federalists- against ratification.

  6. 5. Due Process • Procedure that must be followed if arrested. Ensures that rights are not violated.

  7. 6. Amendment • An addition to the Constitution. Allows the Constitution to change and adapt- keep up to date. • Amendments added by 2/3rd of Congress and 3/4th of the states.

  8. 7. Bill of Rights • To protect civil liberties (rights and freedoms).

  9. 8. Judicial Review • Right of the Supreme Court to declare a law “unconstitutional.” • Example of the unwritten Constitution. • A result of Marbury v. Madison. • Example of checks and balances.

  10. 9. Individual rights • Rights are restricted in schools because school is a “special environment.” • The rights of the individual must be measured against the needs of society.

  11. 10. Federalist Papers • Written to achieve ratification. • Series of persuasive essays written by James Madison, John Jay and Alexander Hamilton.

  12. 11. Declaration of Independence • Written by Thomas Jefferson. • Based on the ideas of John Locke. • List of grievances against England. • Justification for the revolution.

  13. 12. Loose interpretation • Broad interpretation. • Not word for word. • Stretch powers.

  14. 13. Amendments • Allowed the Constitution to remain up to date. • Ability to change and adapt the Constitution

  15. 14. A. 18th & 21st • 18th- Prohibition. Added because of domestic violence. • 21st- repealed prohibition. Organized crime, bootlegging.

  16. B. 19th amendment • 19th- Women’s suffrage (right to vote). Added because of WWI. • Women did their part: sold war bonds, Red Cross

  17. C. 26th Amendment • 26th Amendment- 18 to vote. • Added because Vietnam. • Average age of a soldier in Vietnam was 19.

  18. Engel v. Vitale • Prayer in public schools. State Regents prayer. • Decision- unconstitutional “separation of church and state.”

  19. N.J. v. TLO • Search and seizure in school. 4th amendment. • Decision- school officials need reasonable suspicion. • Police officers need probable cause.

  20. Schenck v. U.S. • first amendment freedom of speech. WWI- handing out pamphlets to avoid the draft. • Decision- rights restricted during wartime. “Clear and present danger” clause.

  21. Vernonia v. Acton • mandatory drug testing of student athletes. 4th amendment. • Decision- can drug test athletic teams. Students opt to join the team. Cannot random test.

  22. Bethel v. Frasier • Inappropriate speech for student council. 1st amendment. • Decision- no freedom of speech. Cannot disrupt the educational process.