The Coming of War1931-1942 Chapter 14
Why it Matters • WWI and the Great Depression impacted almost every corner of the globe. • Dictatorship and totalitarianism were able to grasp many states (nations)
Focus Question: Why did totalitarian states rise after World War I, and what did they do?
A Bitter Peace Unravels • With the end of WWI and the Treaty of Versailles nations again were divided over the terms of peace. • During the 1920’s many nations moved toward democracy and others in the opposite direction of totalitarianism • Totalitarianism – a theory of government in which a single party or leader controls the economic, social, and cultural lives of its people
Characteristics of a Totalitarian State • Single-Party dictatorship • Strong, charismatic leader often at head of government • State control of the economy • Use of police, spies, and terror to enforce the will of the state • Government control of the media and use of propaganda to indoctrinate citizens • Use of schools and youth organizations to spread ideology • Strict censorship of artists, intellectuals, and political rivals
Repression in the Soviet Union and Italy • The 1917 Russian Revolution was the first totalitarian state (Lenin) • His programs resulted in civil war, starvation ,famine, and death of millions of Russians
Stalin’s Grip on the Soviet Union • Joseph Stalin (man of steal) - took Lenin’s place as the head of the Communist Party • His attempts to transform the Soviet Union into an industrial power caused millions of deaths (purges)
Mussolini’s Fascist Party Controls Italy • Italian totalitarianism was in many ways a result of the war, peace treaties, and economic depression. • Benito Mussolini – Fascist Party, trumpeted nationalism and promised to make Italy great again.
Aggressive Leaders in Germany and Japan • After WWI Germany became a democracy (Weimar Republic) • Economic woes and runaway inflation plagued the young government
The Nazis Rise • The National Socialist German Workers’ Party, or Nazi began to threaten the republic • They were not socialists or communist or any ism that promoted class interests or workers’ rights above German ethnic solidarity
Adolf Hitler • Adolf Hitler – led the Nazi Party, failed artist, wounded and decorated WWI soldier • Wrote Mein Kampf(“My Struggle”) stated the problems facing Germany • His most piercing criticisms were of the communists and Jews
Anti-Semitic • Anti-Semitic – prejudice against Jewish people • Anti-Semitism had troubled Europe for centuries, motivated by religious intolerance and economic resentment
Hitler Seizes Power • Recognizing the power of Hitler’s party president of the Weimar Republic appointed Hitler chancellor of Germany in 1933 • Over two years he became chancellor and president then consolidated his power • This was a totalitarian regime (secret police) pgs. 438, 440
Militarists Gain Power in Japan • Reasserting power, military leaders argued that expansion through out Asia would solve Japan’s economic troubles • Japan did not become a totalitarian state, but remained a constitutional monarchy
The Japanese Expand Their Empire • In 1931 Japan attacked Manchuria • 1937 Japan moved against China, gaining control over major Chinese railroad links and coastal areas • The “Rape of Nanjing” 200,000
Checkpoint: How did the Great Depression affect political life in Germany and Japan?
Dictators Turn to Aggression • Germany and Italy resorted to acts of aggression similar to those of Japan in Asia • The League of Nations was powerless to do anything
Hitler and Mussolini Threaten the Peace • Hitler focused on restoring Germany’s economy, army, navy, and air force in direct defiance of the Treaty of Versailles • Hitler spoke of the need to gain Lebensraum, living space • Mussolini invaded Ethiopia with many pleas and little response for the League of Nations
Fighting Breaks out in Spain • Spanish Civil War – bloody conflict that raged from 1936 until 1939. • Fascist rebels fought against Spain's democratic Republic aided by Hitler and Mussolini
Checkpoint: Why did the League of Nations fail to halt German and Italian aggressions?
Aggression Goes Unchecked • Appeasement – policy of granting concessions to a potential enemy in the hope that it will maintain peace • French and British policy in the 1930s’
Cont. • Anschluss (AHN shloos) – in the spring of 1938 Austria’s entrance into the Reich • Munich Pact – the agreement Chamberlain reached at conference with Germany declaring “peace for our time,” this only delayed WWII for 11 months
Checkpoint: Why did Britain, France, and the U.S. not stop fascist aggression in the 1930’s?
Why it Matters • Roosevelt condemned aggression in Asia but did little to stop it, while Britain and France continued appeasement in Germany
Focus Question: How did Americans react to events in Europe and Asia in the early years of WWII?
Roosevelt Opposes Aggression • Roosevelt criticized Japan’s aggression by calling it “reign of terror and international lawlessness” • Roosevelt suggested that no part of the world was truly isolated (pg. 444)
War Erupts in Europe • Hitler Launches a Blitzkrieg Against Poland • Blitzkrieg – sudden attack (lighting war) • France Falls to the Axis Powers • Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, Japan • Allied Powers – Britain, France, Soviet Union, U.S., China • Winston Churchill – British Prime Minister • The Battle of Britain is fought in the air. (pg. 446)
Americans Debate Involvement • America Favors Isolation • Theories behind why the U.S. became involved in WWI • Interventionists Urge Support for the Allies • Neutrality Act of 1939 – cash and carry provisions
Cont. • Isolationists Argue for Neutrality • Trade would automatically involve the U.S., argued The America First Committee • Roosevelt inches toward involvement with the Tripartite Pact – making allies of Germany, Italy, and Japan
Should the U.S. Enter World War II Isolationist Viewpoint - - - - - - - Interventionist Viewpoint - - - - - - - Make a list of both viewpoints using your text.
Checkpoint: According to interventionists, how would aiding the Allies actually keep the United States out of war?
America Takes Steps Toward War • Lend-Lease Act – authorized Roosevelt to “sell transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of, to any such government any defense article”
Cont. • Atlantic Charter – document that endorsed national self-determination and an international system of “general security” • U.S. Navy Battles German U-Boats
Checkpoint: How did the United States support the Allies after Roosevelt’s reelection?