The Coming of War Section 3 – America Enters the War
M.I. • After trying to remain neutral, the bombing of Pearl Harbor brought the US into the war. No more debate.
FDR Supports England • The reasons that Japan bomb us go back several years
The Neutrality Act of 1939 • FDR declared US neutral 2 days after GB & France declare war on Germany • Wanted to help friends • Revised neutrality laws – Warring countries could buy weapons only if they paid cash and carried them on their own ships
Destroyers-for-Bases Deal • GB requested old US destroyers • FDR traded for rights to build bases in British territory • 50 destroyers • Used loophole – no sale……trade
The Isolationist Debate • By 1940 most Americans favored aid to the Allies
The Range of Opinion • Fight for Freedom Committee • Repeal all neutrality laws • Stronger action against Germany • Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies • Aid, but opposed armed intervention • America First Committee • Strictly Isolationist
The Election of 1940 • FDR had served 2 terms – follow tradition or retire? • Change of leaders not good idea • Ran again – neutrality and intervention • Won by a lot
Edging Toward War • US role in war – Help GB fight for democracy • Freedom of speech • Freedom of worship • Freedom from want • Freedom from fear
The Lend-Lease Act • US able to lend or lease arms to any country vital to our defense • Eventually we lent to USSR too • Hitler launched invasion of USSR – 1941 – against pact
The Hemispheric Defense Zone • How to get supplies to GB? • FDR declared HDZ – all the western Atlantic part of western hemisphere and therefore neutral • US to patrol and let British know location of German subs
The Atlantic Charter • FDR and GB • Postwar world of democracy, etc • FDR would force an incident to start war w/ Germany • U boat fired on US destroyer – US declared shoot on sight policy • Germans sank 2 more.
Japan Attacks the United States • Direct result of US aiding Britain • US territory in Guam and the Philippines a threat. • US supported China
Trouble in the Pacific • GB needed to keep navy in Asia to protect interests • US wanted to protect GB from Japanese attack • Japan depended on US for • 80% of oil • Iron, steel • US – Export Control Act – could restrict sale of strategic materials
Blocked sale of airplane fuel and scrap iron • Japan furious – signed on as member of Axis • 1941 – Lend-lease to China • Japan controlled much of Chinese coast • 1941- Japanese sent troops into Indo- China to threaten British interests (Hong Kong and Singapore) • FDR froze Japanese assets in US
Reduced oil shipments • Sent Douglas McArthur to Philippines to build defenses • Peace with China? • Japanese planned attacks of British and Dutch colonies along with the Philippines and Pearl Harbor • General Hideki Tojo became Japanese Prime Minister in 1941- “the razor” – focused on Japanese expansion but wanted to keep US neutral
Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor • Appeared to negotiate in good faith • Intelligence said planning attack • Nov 27, 1941 Pearl Harbor received warning from Wash. DC but Hawaii not specifically mentioned • December 7, 1941 – surprise attack • General Tojo sent – 6 aircraft carriers, 360 airplanes, battleships, cruisers and submarines • Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo
21 ships • 8 battleships severely damaged – 3 destroyed (Arizona, Oklahoma & Utah) • 3 cruisers • 4 destroyers • 6 others • 188 airplanes destroyed • 2,500 dead • 1,178 injured • “a date which will live in infamy” • Dec 8, declared war on Japan
Germany Declares War • Hitler only had to defend Japan, not attack with it • If Germany helped Japan….they will help Germany defeat USSR later • Dec 11, 1941 – Germany and Italy declare war on US
Mobilizing for War • 16 million served in military • 1941-42 army grew from 1.4 million to 3 million • Navy from 300,000 to 600,000 • Marines 54,000 to 150,000 • 300,000 Mexican Americans • 25,000 Native Americans • 1 million African Americans • 350,000 women Women’s Army Corp (WAC) 57,000 nurses – 15,000 served abroad
Mobilizing Industry • 1942 – War Production Board set up to oversee conversion of peace time industry to war • Office of War Mobilization – supervised all commerce • Definite end to Great Depression – boom in economy
Fierce Fighting in the Pacific • Japanese Forces Take the Philippines • General Douglas MacArthur- commander of forces in Asia – had to hold the Philippines w/out much support (Pearl Harbor) • Japanese took Wake Island, Hong Kong and Guam • Dec 22, main attack came
US forces retreated from Manila to Bataan Peninsula and Corregidor Island • Americans trapped • MacArthur ordered to evacuate to Australia – left troops behind • Held out until May 1942 • 75,000 US troops surrendered • Japanese ordered POW’s to march 55 miles up the Bataan Peninsula too reach a railway after which they still had an additional 8 miles to march. • Bataan Death March • More than 7,000 US and Filipino troops died on the march.
America Strikes back with Doolittle Raid • Plan for a US nighttime bombing raid led by Colonel James Doolittle • From deck of an aircraft carrier • 16 B-52 bombers against Tokyo • Just after noon. • Killed 50 people and destroyed 100 buildings.
Holding the Line Against Japan • Chester Nimitz – planning against Japan • Aircraft carriers not damaged in Pearl Harbor
The Fall of the Philippines • A few hours after Pearl Harbor – Philippines • General Douglas MacArthur • Retreat to Bantaan Penninsula • Fighting for 3 months • Disease and lack of supplies • MacArthur ordered to evacuate to Australia
April 9, 1942 – surrender • 78,000 prisoners of war marched 65 miles to Japanese prison camp. • Bataan Death March- thousands died on the way • Corregidor – small island – held out • May 1942 - surrender
The Doolittle Raid • FDR wanted to bomb Tokyo- US planes could not reach • Replace short range bombers with B-25 long range • Could take off from carrier but not land- China • Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle in command • April 18th bombs fall on Japan • Planes land in China
A Change in Japanese Strategy • US bombs could have killed emperor • Japanese Admiral Yamamoto – attack Midway military base • Lure US forces so Japanese could destroy • Also attack New Guinea- cut off supply lines
The Battle of the Coral Sea • US code breakers in Hawaii figured out plan • Nimitz sent 2 carriers to intercept Japanese attack at New Guinea • Supply lines remained open