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The Road to War 1931-1941. 2/27 Bell ringer. Conclusion sentences. . 2/27 Bell ringer. What observations can you make about this illustration? What inferences can you make about this illustration? Predict what you think we’re talking about today.

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2 27 bell ringer
2/27 Bell ringer
  • Conclusion sentences.
2 27 bell ringer1
2/27 Bell ringer
  • What observations can you make about this illustration?
  • What inferences can you make about this illustration?
  • Predict what you think we’re talking about today.
  • Objective: Students will be able to identify the causes of the rise of fascism and totalitarian governments and its impact by completing a graphic organizer.
bitter peace
Bitter Peace 

Bitter feelings over Treaty of Versailles

Worldwide Depression

Totalitarianism 


Complete Control



 Fascism

Totalitarian State

Extreme forms of Nationalism


josef stalin
 Josef Stalin

was the ruthless fascist leader of the USSR.

He wanted Russia to industrialize to defend & expand her influence in the world.

Had his enemies killed or exiled

reign of terror
Reign of Terror
  • Purges
    • Process of removing enemies and undesirable individuals from power
  • Great Purge
    • 1934 “show trials” – guilty was the only verdict
  • Paranoia
    • Millions killed or sent to labor camps
cult of personality
Cult of Personality
  • Names
    • Brilliant Genius of Humanity
    • Father of Nations
  • Son Yakov
    • Suicide Attempt
    • Red Army Service
benito mussolini
 Benito Mussolini

was a fascist who used violence to rise to power in Italy.

His ‘Black Shirts’ invaded North Africa, Somalia & Ethiopia.

il duce
Il Duce
  • Blackshirts
  • Threat on Rome
  • Invaded and took Ethiopia
  • Economic Improvement
francisco franco
Francisco Franco

was the Fascist General of Spain.

In the Spanish civil war, he fought against the republican government aided by Communist Russia!

adolf hitler
 Adolf Hitler

Fascist dictator of Germany.

adolf hitler was
Adolf Hitler was…

born in Austria

high school drop-out

struggling artist

as a corporal in WWI, he was gassed & wounded.

anti semitism
 Anti-Semitism

Hitler had a hatred of Jews.

Scapegoat: a person/group who is falsely assigned blame

He was determined to exterminate the Jews who he blamed for Germany’s defeat in WWI.


National Socialist German Workers

The party had 55,000 members in 1923!


Became the symbol of the Nazi Party.

beer hall putsch
‘Beer Hall’Putsch

Nazis failed in 1923 to take over Bavaria.

They surrounded leading officials in a beer hall but were unsuccessful in the end.

hitler went to
Hitler went to….

Landsberg Prison in 1924

Was imprisoned for a year after the failure of the Beer Hall Putsch.

mein kampf
 Mein Kampf

Hitler wrote the “guidebook” of the Nazi party while in prison.

hitler wrote
Hitler wrote…..

‘democracy is a fraud’ & ‘the only good government is a dictatorship.’

He predicted his ‘Third Reich’ would last a thousand years!

exit ticket
Exit Ticket
  • Create and complete the following chart on your own paper:



Fascist Countries

Prediction: How does the rise of Fascism lead to World War II?





Due to reparation payments, the economy fell apart.

Inflation ‘ran wild’ is an understatement. A loaf of bread went from 10, to 1000, to 1 billion marks.

‘Heil Hitler!’

Depression left Germans ‘leaderless, hungry & helpless.’

pep rally
‘Pep’ Rally!

Hitler held ‘mass’ rallies to excite Germans & make them proud!

Swastika banners & flags were everywhere with hour long orations of hate & glory.

der fuhrer
Der Fuhrer
  • 1932 – Nazis Largest party in


  • 1933 – Hitler appointed Chancellor

by the President

    • Brownshirts intimidate
  • March 1933 – Reichstag Burned Down
    • Nazis blame Communists
  • August 1934 – President dies and Hitler declares himself Der Fuhrer

In 1936, Germany moved its’ ‘enormous new army’ into this ‘demilitarized’ area.

Hitler & Mussolini slipped arms & men into Spain to support Fascist General Franco.


Hitler wanted to ‘annex’ all the ‘Germans’ of Austria, Czechoslovakia & Poland!

Some German professors supported him, & millions of Germans ‘went along.’


Austria was invaded & annexed by Germany in March 1938.


Hitler then demanded a section of Czechoslovakia inhabited by 3 million people of German ancestry.

 Appeasement

Granting concessions to an enemy in an attempt to maintain peace.

munich pact
Munich Pact

Leaders of Britain & France met with Hitler on September 28, 1938.

Chamberlain did not want to risk war to save the Czech republic.

i ll take it
‘I’ll take it!’

Czechoslovakia was dismembered & part given to Germany!

Hitler takes a tour of a Czech city after he took over the country.

i hold in my hand the paper
‘I hold in my hand the paper..’

Chamberlain said he had achieved ‘peace in our time’….

…as Hitler occupied the Sudetenland.

churchill s disapproval
Churchill’s Disapproval

Munich proved appeasement is a ‘dangerous’ policy.

“Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war.”


After the seizure of Czechoslovakia, Britain pledged aid to Poland in case of a threat.

Britain made similar pledges to Greece & Romania!

On March 15, 1939, Hitler seized the rest of the country!

The policy of appeasement was exposed as a failure.

non aggression

Germany got W. Poland & the USSR was free to take Finland, Estonia, Lativia & E. Poland.

Germany & Russia pledged not to attack each other for a period of 10 years.

causes of wwii
Causes of WWII

Treaty of Versailles

The rise of fascism in Europe

Japanese imperialism.

sept 1 1939
 SEPT 1, 1939

The event that started WWII in Europe was Germany’s invasion of Poland.

september 3 1939
September 3, 1939
  • Britain & France declared war on Germany
  • Russia marched into Poland from the east 2 weeks later!
axis powers
 Axis Powers!

Germany, Italy, & Japan.

You must be able to locate them on a map of Europe.

allied powers
 Allied Powers
  • France, England, Russia & US
  • You must be able to locate them on a map of Europe.
mini quiz

On what date did WWII start?

Name the two fascist dictators?

What country was in the middle of a civil war?

Who was the ruthless leader of Russia?

What country was invaded prompting the beginning of the war?

text notes
Text Notes

The real fighting didn’t start until a year after Britain and France declared war on Germany.

It was called a ‘phony’ war, but in April 1940 Hitler launched a new kind of war!

maginot line
Maginot Line

tunnels, forts & antitank fields that ran along the border between France and Germany.

The line ran 350 miles & the forts, like this one, were made of concrete.

phony war

As Hitler was moving his troops back from Poland, there was no fighting along the French border.

 Blitzkrieg!

‘Lightning War’ was Hitler’s surprising strategy.

It depended upon airpower & used the fastest new vehicles to overwhelm the enemy!

spring 1940
Spring 1940

Germany invaded Denmark & Norway!

The ‘Phony War’ ended & the world was shocked that the Nazis had pulled this off using bicycles.

  • Hitler attacked the Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg.
  • From there, he bypassed the Maginot line & lunged deep into France.
june 14 1940
June 14, 1940

French resistance collapsed & Paris fell.

Thousands of weeping men & women lined the streets helpless.

new pm
‘New PM’

“The ‘pugnacious’ Winston Churchill replaced Chamberlain as Prime Minister.”

one is the loneliest number
‘One is the loneliest number…..’

Britain stood alone protected only by her navy & R.A.F.

battle of britain

Hitler attacked Britain by air in the summer of 1940.

How important was the Battle of Britain? Why?

air raid
Air Raid!

Hitler sent hundreds of bombers to rain devastation & death on London.

But the RAF drove the Luftwaffe away.


A key factor in the British victory was the decoding of secret messages because they knew when the Germans were coming & where they were headed!

Code name for Hitler’s plan to invade England.

Despite the success of Ultra, many German bombers got through & killed hundreds of people in Coventry.

neutrality act 1939
Neutrality Act 1939

repeal of the embargo on shipping arms to the belligerents.

It helped the forces of democracy by allowing the US to help the Allies.

promises promises

FDR said in the campaign:

‘Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars!’


Registration of men, age 21 to 35, for military service!

fdr planned to
FDR planned to….

‘turn out’ 50,000 planes in 1941 & every year until the Nazis were defeated!

and he asked for billions to create a two ocean navy.

wanta trade
Wanta trade?

FDR transferred 50 ‘old’ destroyers to Britain in 1940

in exchange for the use of 8 British Naval bases.

lend lease

US provided $50 billion in war supplies to Britain.

And to other countries vital to US defense!

us position
US Position

The US, although neutral, supplied the Allies with food and weapons!

Atlantic Charter

four freedoms
 Four Freedoms





In January 1941, FDR proclaimed these ‘essential human freedoms’ on which a world after the war would be founded.

mini quiz1
  • On what date did WWII start?
  • Name 2 Fascist leaders.
  • Who was the ruthless leader of Russia?
  • What country was invaded that prompted the beginning of the war?
  • Germany and Italy made up the ________ Powers.
  • What country did Germany conquer, leaving Britain to face them alone?
  • T/F The United States stayed completely neutral.
  • What was the name of the line of fighting between France and Germany?
  • What was the British Air Force called?
  • Name FDR’s Four Freedoms.