The Road to War 1931-1941. 2/27 Bell ringer. Conclusion sentences. . 2/27 Bell ringer. What observations can you make about this illustration? What inferences can you make about this illustration? Predict what you think we’re talking about today.
Bitter feelings over Treaty of Versailles
Extreme forms of Nationalism
was the ruthless fascist leader of the USSR.
He wanted Russia to industrialize to defend & expand her influence in the world.
Had his enemies killed or exiled
was a fascist who used violence to rise to power in Italy.
His ‘Black Shirts’ invaded North Africa, Somalia & Ethiopia.
was the Fascist General of Spain.
In the Spanish civil war, he fought against the republican government aided by Communist Russia!
Fascist dictator of Germany.
born in Austria
high school drop-out
as a corporal in WWI, he was gassed & wounded.
Hitler had a hatred of Jews.
Scapegoat: a person/group who is falsely assigned blame
He was determined to exterminate the Jews who he blamed for Germany’s defeat in WWI.
National Socialist German Workers
The party had 55,000 members in 1923!
Became the symbol of the Nazi Party.
Nazis failed in 1923 to take over Bavaria.
They surrounded leading officials in a beer hall but were unsuccessful in the end.
Landsberg Prison in 1924
Was imprisoned for a year after the failure of the Beer Hall Putsch.
Hitler wrote the “guidebook” of the Nazi party while in prison.
‘democracy is a fraud’ & ‘the only good government is a dictatorship.’
He predicted his ‘Third Reich’ would last a thousand years!
Prediction: How does the rise of Fascism lead to World War II?
Due to reparation payments, the economy fell apart.
Inflation ‘ran wild’ is an understatement. A loaf of bread went from 10, to 1000, to 1 billion marks.
Depression left Germans ‘leaderless, hungry & helpless.’
Hitler held ‘mass’ rallies to excite Germans & make them proud!
Swastika banners & flags were everywhere with hour long orations of hate & glory.
by the President
In 1936, Germany moved its’ ‘enormous new army’ into this ‘demilitarized’ area.
Hitler & Mussolini slipped arms & men into Spain to support Fascist General Franco.
Hitler wanted to ‘annex’ all the ‘Germans’ of Austria, Czechoslovakia & Poland!
Some German professors supported him, & millions of Germans ‘went along.’
Austria was invaded & annexed by Germany in March 1938.
Hitler then demanded a section of Czechoslovakia inhabited by 3 million people of German ancestry.
Granting concessions to an enemy in an attempt to maintain peace.
Leaders of Britain & France met with Hitler on September 28, 1938.
Chamberlain did not want to risk war to save the Czech republic.
Czechoslovakia was dismembered & part given to Germany!
Hitler takes a tour of a Czech city after he took over the country.
Chamberlain said he had achieved ‘peace in our time’….
…as Hitler occupied the Sudetenland.
Munich proved appeasement is a ‘dangerous’ policy.
“Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war.”
After the seizure of Czechoslovakia, Britain pledged aid to Poland in case of a threat.
Britain made similar pledges to Greece & Romania!
On March 15, 1939, Hitler seized the rest of the country!
The policy of appeasement was exposed as a failure.
Germany got W. Poland & the USSR was free to take Finland, Estonia, Lativia & E. Poland.
Germany & Russia pledged not to attack each other for a period of 10 years.
Treaty of Versailles
The rise of fascism in Europe
The event that started WWII in Europe was Germany’s invasion of Poland.
Germany, Italy, & Japan.
You must be able to locate them on a map of Europe.
On what date did WWII start?
Name the two fascist dictators?
What country was in the middle of a civil war?
Who was the ruthless leader of Russia?
What country was invaded prompting the beginning of the war?
The real fighting didn’t start until a year after Britain and France declared war on Germany.
It was called a ‘phony’ war, but in April 1940 Hitler launched a new kind of war!
tunnels, forts & antitank fields that ran along the border between France and Germany.
The line ran 350 miles & the forts, like this one, were made of concrete.
As Hitler was moving his troops back from Poland, there was no fighting along the French border.
‘Lightning War’ was Hitler’s surprising strategy.
It depended upon airpower & used the fastest new vehicles to overwhelm the enemy!
Germany invaded Denmark & Norway!
The ‘Phony War’ ended & the world was shocked that the Nazis had pulled this off using bicycles.
French resistance collapsed & Paris fell.
Thousands of weeping men & women lined the streets helpless.
“The ‘pugnacious’ Winston Churchill replaced Chamberlain as Prime Minister.”
Britain stood alone protected only by her navy & R.A.F.
Hitler attacked Britain by air in the summer of 1940.
How important was the Battle of Britain? Why?
Hitler sent hundreds of bombers to rain devastation & death on London.
But the RAF drove the Luftwaffe away.
A key factor in the British victory was the decoding of secret messages because they knew when the Germans were coming & where they were headed!
Code name for Hitler’s plan to invade England.
Despite the success of Ultra, many German bombers got through & killed hundreds of people in Coventry.
repeal of the embargo on shipping arms to the belligerents.
It helped the forces of democracy by allowing the US to help the Allies.
FDR said in the campaign:
‘Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars!’
Registration of men, age 21 to 35, for military service!
‘turn out’ 50,000 planes in 1941 & every year until the Nazis were defeated!
and he asked for billions to create a two ocean navy.
FDR transferred 50 ‘old’ destroyers to Britain in 1940
in exchange for the use of 8 British Naval bases.
US provided $50 billion in war supplies to Britain.
And to other countries vital to US defense!
The US, although neutral, supplied the Allies with food and weapons!
3. FROM WANT
4. FROM FEAR
In January 1941, FDR proclaimed these ‘essential human freedoms’ on which a world after the war would be founded.