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Unsteady-State Mass Balance

Unsteady-State Energy Balance

Constitutive Relationships

- Usually in the form of algebraic equations.
- Used with the balance equations to model chemical engineering processes.
- Examples include:
- Reaction kinetic expressions
- Equations of state
- Heat transfer correlation functions
- Vapor/liquid equilibrium relationships

Different Types of Modeling Terms

- Dependent variables are calculated from the solution of the model equations.
- Independent variables require specification by the user or by an optimization algorithm and represent extra degrees of freedom.
- Parameters, such as densities or rate constants, are constants used in the model equations.

Dynamic Model for CST Thermal Mixer

- The model assumes perfect level control:

Dynamic Model for CST Composition Mixer

- The model assumes perfect level control:

Dynamic Model for Tank Level

- Accumulation of mass in the tank is equal to the mass flow rate in minus the mass flow rate out.
- For a gravity drained tank,

Dynamic Model for Tank Level

- Actuator on flow out of the tank.
- Process model
- Level sensor since the level sensor is much faster than the process and the actuator

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