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Plant Structure and Growth Chapter 35. The Angiosperm Body. Two Classes based on Embryo s: 1. Monocots : single Cotyledon (seed leaf) 2. Dicots : two cotyledons. Three Basic Organs Roots Stems/Shoots Leaves. Monocots vs. Dicots. Root System.

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the angiosperm body
The Angiosperm Body

Two Classes based on Embryo s:

1. Monocots: single Cotyledon (seed leaf)

2. Dicots: two cotyledons

  • Three Basic Organs
  • Roots
  • Stems/Shoots
  • Leaves
root system
Root System

Dicots have main Taproot: one large vertical root, small lateral roots, firm anchor. Energy storage Root crops harvested before flowering

Monocots: fibrous roots, thread like, short,

Root Hairs: tiny fibers increase surface area, have Mycorrhizae.

Adventitious roots: roots that rise up above ground, or other unusual area

shoot system

Modified Shoots

Shoot System
  • Vegetative shoots with leaves, floral shoots
  • May be
    • Vegetative (leaf bearing)
    • Reproductive (flower)
  • Stems
    • Nodes: point where leaves are attached
    • Internode: b/w nodes
    • Auxillary Bud
    • Terminal Bud
      • Apical Dominance
      • Apical Meristem


  • Blade: leaf structure, photosynthesis
  • Petiole: stalk that joins leaf w/ node of stem

Grasses lack petiole;

Monocots have parallel veins in leaves,

Dicots have multi-branched network. Pattern can be used to ID plant. Specialized for photosynthesis or other functions

three systems of tissues
Three Systems of Tissues
  • Dermal Tissue System: epidermis, covers and protects. Root hairs, cuticle of leaves secrete waxes.
  • Vascular Tissues Systems: Xylem, Phloem
  • Ground Tissue Systems: b/w dermal and vascular tissues. Mostly parenchyma.
  • Xylem moves water/minerals upwards from root
  • Phloem moves food from leaves to roots
water food conducting cells
Water/Food Conducting Cells
  • Xylems: elongated cells to conduct water. Two types:
  • 1. Tracheids: long thin, tapered
  • 2. Vessel elements: wider, shorter, end to end
  • Both dead at maturity, Various sections:
    • Pits: thin regions of primary walls, found in tracheids
    • Xylem vessels: end walls perforated, water flows freely

Phloem: food conducting; sieve tube members, no nucleus

Chains of Sieve-tube members: alive at maturity,

Angiosperms have sieve plates b/w cells w/ pores.

Each sieve tube member has companion cells,connected to sieve tube by plasmodesmata, helps ST and loads sugar into phloem.

basic structure of plant cell
Basic Structure of Plant Cell
  • General Structure of cell with modifications.
  • Cell Wall (Primary, Secondary (3), Lamella)
  • Chloroplast
  • Vacuole
  • Tonoplast
  • Plasmodesmata



Apical Meristems

  • Primary Growth: elongation of AM in tips of roots/buds.
  • Secondary Growth: thickening of roots/shoots (lateral meristems)
  • Quiescent Center: cells divide slowly in AM. function as reserves
  • Primary Meristems:protoderm, procambium, ground meristem (produce 3 tissues of root dermal, vascular, and ground)

Root Tissues

  • Protoderm:
      • gives rise to outermost meristem, epidermis, single layer of cells covering roots
  • Procambrium
      • Stele :develop from procambrium, xylem/phloem vascular bundle development. Single central cylinder, xylem radiates out, phloem forms around.(Pith in monocots).
  • Ground:
      • Cortex: b/w stele and epidermis, ground tissue development.
      • Endodermis: innermost layer of cortex, one cell thick
      • Pericycle: layer of cells that may become meristmatic, produces lateral roots.
primary growth of shoots
Primary Growth of Shoots
  • Apical Meristem: dome shape, terminal end of bud. Gives rise to protoderm, procamrium, and ground meristem
  • Axillary Buds: meristem islands that will form branches later on.
  • Lateral roots develop from w/i main root, Lateral branches develop from axillary buds.
  • Vascular tissue located near surface.
primary tissue of stems
Primary Tissue of Stems
  • Vascular Tissues/Vascular Bundles: lengthwise in stem, grouped in bundles in center and spread outwards, (roots found in center). Surrounded by ground tissue.
      • Dicots: arranged in rings w/ piths and cortex external to ring. Xylem face towards pith. Phloem face cortex.
      • Monocots: VB scattered in ground tissue. Ground tissue mostly parenchymal cells.
      • Sclerenchyma Cells form fibers for support

Tissue Organization of Leaves

  • Epidermis:
    • covered by dermal cells, interlocking cells.
    • Has stomata’s tiny pores flanked by guard cells (epithelial cells).
    • Transpiration= loss of water by evaporation.
    • Upper and Lower regions
  • Mesophyll: paranchymal cells b/w upper and lower epidermal layers
    • Chloroplasts
    • Distinct regions in Dicots
      • Palisade cells:
      • Spongy Parenchyma: spongy, air space, CO2 and O2 circulates, gas exchange
  • Vascular Bundle: Xylem, Phloem and Fibers for support
secondary growth
Secondary Growth
  • Secondary plant body: tissue produced during secondary growth in diameter. Two Lateral Meristem Functions
    • Vascular Cambium: produces secondary vascular bundle
        • Xylem produced towards interior
        • Phloem produced towards exterior
      • Forms from paranchymal cells, b/come meristemic
    • Cork Cambium: produces tough thick covering for stems and roots. Replaces epidermis.
        • Cork: waxy substance, suberin. Die early, barrier
        • Periderm: cork and cork cambium
        • Bark: secodary phloem, cork cambium, cork
          • (phloem and periderm)
cork cambium production of periderm
Cork Cambium Production of Periderm
  • Cork Cambium produces cork cells (waxy).Fixed size. Cork acts as barrier.
      • Periderm: cork + cork cambrium.
      • Bark: all tissue external to vascular cambrium
      • Lenticels: areas of bark which is spongy, gas exchange for cellular respiration.

Plane: directional growth

Asymmetrical Growth:one daughter cell receives more of cytoplasm

Guard Cells need both asym., and plane division

Preprophase Band: microtubules in cortex set plane of division