Three legends: Sitting Bull Chief Joseph Germonimo Native American Resistance
Overview • Westward expansion is in high gear. • After the Civil War the “Homestead Act” spurred people to move West to the “Frontier. • This movement was propelled by the Gold Rush, the romantic lure of the West, and new opportunity. • Standing in the way of this advance were Native Americans. • Some would accept “relocation” peacefully. • Others would not.
Sitting Bull • Hunkpapa Sioux. • United Lakota in their struggle to retain their lands. • Courageous warrior • Fort Laramie and Gold • Custer’s Last Stand • Surrendered after a relentless search. • Wild West Show • Ghost Dance
Chief Joseph • One of the first Nez Perce to convert to Christianity. • Gained great fame for his oratory. • Resisted loss of Wallowa Valley in Oregon. • After a renegade attack on white settlers by rogue Nez Perce. Joseph went on a 1400 mile march to retreat from US forces. • “Sherman” • 200 v. 2000
I Will Fight No More Forever • I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed. Looking Glass is dead. Toohoolhoolzote is dead. The old men are all dead. It is the young men who say, "Yes" or "No." He who led the young men [Olikut] is dead. It is cold, and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them, have run away to the hills, and have no blankets, no food. No one knows where they are -- perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children, and see how many of them I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs! I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.
Geronimo • Apache leader whose band was forceably relocated to the wastelands of the SW. • Resisted this and launched sieges against settlers. • Pursued vigorously by US Army. • Brilliant military struggle. • Finally relented, the last Native American to resist US force.