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Chapter 3. Suffixes and Prefixes. Suffixes. When a suffix begins with a vowel the combining “o” is not used. Pronunciation. “g” and “c” are soft when followed by an “i” or “e” as in ginger or cent “g” and “c” are hard like in good or can when followed by an “o” or “a”. Plural Forms.

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

Suffixes and Prefixes

suffixes
Suffixes
  • When a suffix begins with a vowel the combining “o” is not used
pronunciation
Pronunciation
  • “g” and “c” are soft when followed by an “i” or “e” as in ginger or cent
  • “g” and “c” are hard like in good or can when followed by an “o” or “a”
plural forms
Plural Forms
  • When a term ends in “us” the “us” is dropped and “i” is added to show the plural
    • Staphylococcus……staphylococci- round bacterium that grows in small clusters
      • Infections of the bones or kidneys are frequently caused by this bacterium
      • Also causes boils, and skin abscesses
    • Streptococcus……streptococci- round bacterium that grows in twisted chains
      • Causes strep throat, rheumatic fever, sinus infections, kidney problems
more hints
More hints
  • When two consonants begin a word (or suffix)…the first one is silent
    • Pneumonia
    • blepharoptosis
hernia o cele
Hernia o/cele
  • Bulging forth or protrusion of an structure
    • Muscle, organs, tissues
    • Rectocele- rectum protruding into the vagina
    • Cystocele- bladder protruding into the vagina
    • Omphalocele- protruding navel occurs at birth
lapse
-lapse
  • To fall, sag or slide
  • Prolapse- sliding forward or down
blood cells
Blood Cells
  • Erythrocytes- red blood cells carry oxygen to the cells
    • Hemoglobin- iron containing protein that carries oxygen
    • Produced in the bone marrow
blood cells1
Blood Cells
  • Leukocytes- white blood cells
    • Granulocytes- form in the bone marrow
    • Three types
      • Eosinophil- aid in allergic reactions
      • Basophil- aid in inflammation
      • Neutrophil- polymorhonuclear, phagocytes cells that engulf bacteria and break them down
blood cells2
Blood Cells
  • Leukocytes- white blood cells
    • Agranulocytes- produced in the lymph nodes and spleen
      • Lymphocytes- T and B cells produce antibodies to destroy foreign cells and proteins (antigens)
      • Monocytes- engulf and destroy debris leftover after the neutrophils have attacked cells
      • Thrombocytes- platelets- blood clotting cells fragments
other blood facts
Other Blood Facts
  • Antibodies- Produced by white blood cells …responsible for attaching to foreign cells and antigens
    • Developed after exposure to bacteria and viruses and other antigens
    • Vaccination for a disease
    • Autoimmune developed in response to self
  • Rh factor- this is a protein found on red blood cells some people have it and some don’t
    • Important in pregnancy and blood transfusions and transplantation of organs
blood disorders
Blood Disorders
  • Leukocytosis- increased number of (normal) circulating white blood cells
  • Leukemia- increased number of abnormal white blood cells circulating- cancerous blood cells
  • Anemia- means no blood, reduction in red blood cells or hemoglobin circulating
    • Aplastic anemia- no formation of blood cells by the bone marrow
circulation basics
Circulation Basics
  • Arteries carry blood away from the heart to arterioles
  • Arterioles branch into capillaries
  • Capillaries have thin walls that allow oxygen and other nutrients to leave and move into surrounding cells
  • Venules connect to capillaries and pick up waste and dump into veins
  • Veins carrry blood to the heart
amniocentesis
Amniocentesis
  • Amnion- sac that surrounds the developing fetus
  • -centesis- puncture to remove fluid
  • This procedure is done to determine genetic abnormalities in the developing fetus
    • Cells removed during the procedure are cultured and then studied to determine the karyotype
genetic inheritance
Genetic Inheritance
  • Congenital anomalies- defects one is born with some are genetic BUT not all.
    • Environmental exposures can account for many problems
    • Health habits of the parents also contribute (fetal alcohol syndrome)
    • Genetic contributions to congenital defects are not always apparent in the parents
ultrasonography
Ultrasonography
  • Use of ultrasound waves to produce an image of body structures
    • Used to view developing fetus, heart, and other structures
    • Used to determine if an ectopic pregancy has occurred (pregnancy outside the uterus)
    • Useful in viewing the fetus to determine if congenital anomalies exist
laparoscopy
Laparoscopy
  • Peritoneoscopy
    • Visual examination of the abdominal cavity
    • Instrument is called a laparoscope
    • Used to do exploratory surgery or remove appendix, gallbladder, repair hernias, perform tubial ligations and for performing biopsies
other stuff
Other stuff….
  • Acromegaly- caused by high levels of growth hormones leads to large hands, feet and face
  • Splenomegaly- enlarged spleen
  • Achondroplasia- (failure to grow) bones are abnormally short
endocrine glands
Endocrine glands
  • Parathyroid- located on the dorsal surface of the thyroid glands- regulate blood calcium levels
  • Ovaries and Testes- produce sex hormones and sex cells
  • Adrenal Glands- endocrine glands located on the top of the kidneys (suprarenal glands)
    • Produce epinephrine (adrenaline) creates changes in the circulatory system including heart rate and increased blood pressure
    • Dilates the bronchial tubes
male and female reproductive systems
Male and Female Reproductive Systems
  • Know the basic structures and surrounding structures (pubis symphysis, bladder, urethra, etc.)
  • Transuretheral resection- removal of part of the prostate gland needed if hypertrophies occurs
more other stuff
More other Stuff
  • Contralateral- on the opposite side of the body
  • Ipsilaterial- on the same side of the body
activities
Activities
  • Vocabulary Flashcards
  • Practical application
  • All Exercises
  • Pronunciation of Terms
assessment 03 01 preview
Path/o

Peritone/o

Lysis

Gram

Isch/o

Laryng/o

My

Nephr

Neutr

Oste

Ot

Mamm/o

Malacia

Algia

Ophthalm/o

Megaly

Iod

Ac,iac

Eal

AryIa

Mast/o

Pneumon

Angi/o

Chem

Chron/o

Col

Cyst/o

Phleb

Plas

Myel

Necr

Ren/o

Thromb

Axill/o

Bronch

Lapar

Muc

Assessment 03.01 Preview

Indicate the meaning of each word and whether it is a suffix, root, combining form, or prefix

assessment 03 02 preview
Abnormal condition of increase in white blood cells

Weakened eyelid muscles

Enlargement of the spleen

Excessive growth of the hands, feet, and face after puberty

Reduction in the number of erythrocytes or amount of hemoglobin

Loss of normal blood flow to a region

Swelling of the lymphatic tissue in the throat caused by streptococcal infection

Infection caused by streptococcus bacteria

Genetic disorder causing defective cartilage in the limbs

Disease caused by a diplocccus infection

A needle inserted through the abdomen, uterine and amnion to remove fluid for study

A bulging or protrusion of an organ through a muscle wall

Protrusion of rectum through the muscular wall of the vagina

Hernia of the navel at birth

Protrusion of bladder through the muscular wall of the vagina

Mass of blood in the tissue

Low number of red blood cells

Surgical incision in the tube leading to the lungs

Puncture of the cavity that contains the lungs

Painful breathing

Assessment 03.02 Preview

Indicate the name of each condition/procedure and the medical professional that would treat the condition or perform the procedure.

assessment 03 03 preview
Erythrocyte

Hemoglobin

Leukocytes

Granulocytes:

Eosinophil

Basophil

Neutrophil

Agranulocytes:

Lymphocytes

Monocytes

Other Parts:

Thrombocytes

Plasma

Assessment 03.03 Preview

Indicate the function, description, and formation location for the following blood cells and parts.

assessment 03 04 preview
–algia

–cele

–centesis

–coccus

–cyte

–dynia

–ectomy

–emia

–genesis

–genic

–gram

–graph

–graphy

–opsy

–megaly

– lysis

–it is

–oma

–malacia

–ology

a. P.T. producing, produced by, or in

b. Hernia

c. berry shaped, bacterium

d. Pain

e. surgical puncture

f. condition of producing, forming

g. blood condition

h. Pain

i. Cell

j. excision, removal, resection

k. breakdown, destruction, separation

l. tumor, mass, collection of fluid

m. to view

n. instrument for recording

o. Inflammation

p. Record

q. study of

u. Enlargement

v. Softening

w. Hardening

x. drooping, sagging, prolapsed

y. process of recording

Assessment 03.04 Preview

Match each suffix to its definition.

assessment 03 05 case study
Assessment 03.05 – Case Study

In a word processing document or Powerpoint, translate the following to layman’s terms, using illustrations where necessary.

  • 21 year old black female with a history of systemic lupus and chronic renal failure presented with decreased hemoglobin and heme positive stools. On nuclear scintigraphy, increased tracer uptake was noted in the region of the stomach throughout 3 hours of the study without distal progression likely secondary to gastritis (NUCIMAGE). The patient was given sulfur colloid 500 uCi orally at 3 hours which confirmed that the abnormal uptake was indeed in the stomach (NUCIMAGE). Gastritis and duodenal ulcers were documented on upper endoscopy.
assessment 03 06 case study
Assessment 03.06 – Case Study

In a word processing document or Powerpoint, translate the following to layman’s terms, using illustrations where necessary.

Fragile X Syndrome

  • A 27-year-old woman presents to clinic with her 7 year-old-son. He was born at term weighing 7 pounds and appeared normal. However, as he grew older he was noted to have developmental delay, and was noted to have several "dysmorphic features." He was placed in "special education" classes in school. On physical examination you noted that he had a long face, large ears, lax joints and large testes. His face was somewhat narrow with a prominent jaw. The family history revealed normal parents and a normal developing sister. Routine chromosomal analysis (450 bands) was noted to be normal. Upon review of this data you conclude that this child may have a form of X-linked mental retardation known as the Fragile X syndrome. The fragile X marker was recognized to depend on culture of cells in low folic acid medium prior to karyotype. Subsequently, the fragile site on the long arm of the X chromosome (Xq27) was shown to be expanding triplet repeat mutation (the FMR-1 gene).