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Lesson 5 CHANGE OF PHASE. DISTINGUISH between intensive and extensive properties. DEFINE the following terms: Saturation Subcooled liquid Superheated vapor Critical Point Triple Point Vapor pressure curve Quality Moisture Content

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lesson 5 change of phase
Lesson 5CHANGE OF PHASE
  • DISTINGUISH between intensive and extensive properties.
  • DEFINE the following terms:
    • Saturation
    • Subcooled liquid
    • Superheated vapor
    • Critical Point
    • Triple Point
    • Vapor pressure curve
    • Quality
    • Moisture Content
  • DESCRIBE the processes of sublimation, vaporization, condensation, and fusion.
classification of properties
Classification of Properties
  • Intensive Properties - independent of the amount of mass present
    • Pressure
    • Temperature
    • Density
  • Extensive Properties - a function of the amount of mass present.
    • Volume
    • Mass
  • An extensive property may be made intensive by dividing the particular property by the total mass
classification of properties cont
Classification of Properties (cont.)
  • Saturation - A condition in which a mixture of vapor and liquid can exist together at a given temperature and pressure.
  • Saturation Temperature (Boiling Point) - The temperature at which vaporization (boiling) starts to occur for a given pressure.
  • Saturation Pressure – The pressure at which vaporization (boiling) starts to occur for a given temperature
  • Subcooled Liquid – Liquid with temperature that is lower than the saturation temperature for the existing pressure.
  • Quality (x) - The ratio of the mass of the vapor to the total mass of both vapor and liquid when a substance exists as part liquid and part vapor at saturation conditions
classification of properties cont1
Classification of Properties (cont.)
  • Moisture Content - the fraction of the total mass of a mixture that is in the liquid phase
  • Saturated and Superheated Vapors - a vapor at a temperature above saturation temperature for its pressure
  • Constant Pressure Heat Addition
classification of properties cont2
Classification of Properties (cont.)
  • Critical Point – Point where there is no constant-temperature vaporization process. Rather, point N is a point of inflection, with the slope being zero. Saturated-liquid and saturated-vapor states are identical
  • Fusion - The process of melting
  • Sublimation - Transition between the solid phase and the vapor phase occurs directly, without passing through the liquid phase (dry ice).
  • Triple Point - The state in which all three phases may be present in equilibrium
summary
Summary

Classification of Properties

  • Intensive properties are independent of mass (temperature, pressure, or any specific property)
  • Extensive properties are a function of the mass of the system (mass, volume)
summary continued
Summary (continued)

Terms

  • Saturation - combination of temperature and pressure at which a mixture of vapor and liquid can exist at equilibrium
  • Subcooled liquid - a liquid at a temperature below saturation temperature for its pressure
  • Superheated vapor - a vapor at a temperature above saturation temperature for its pressure
  • Critical point - the temperature and pressure above which there is no distinction between the liquid and vapor phases
  • Triple point - the temperature and pressure at which all three phases can exist in equilibrium
  • Vapor pressure curve - a graphical representation of the relationship between temperature and pressure at saturated conditions
  • Quality - the fraction of the total mass of a mixture that is in the vapor phase
  • Moisture Content - the fraction of the total mass of a mixture that is in the liquid phase
summary continued1
Summary (continued)

Phase Change Processes

  • Sublimation - change of phase from solid to vapor
  • Vaporization - change of phase from liquid to vapor
  • Condensation - change of phase from vapor to liquid
  • Fusion or melting - change of phase from solid to liquid