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how your stepper motor works

How Your Stepper–motor Works?

stepper motor
Stepper motor
  • The stepper–motor is one of the most commonly used pieces of equipment in amateur and hobby electronics. You’ll use it at the heart of many of your creations because of its capacity for extremely delicate control.

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Stepper motor
  • Unlike a brush motor, the stepper–motor moves in definable increments. The increments are defined by the number of teeth, or “steps” on the gear wheel – and the number of electromagnetic teeth arranged around the gear.

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Stepper motor
  • The stepper moves through increments when the electromagnets on the gear surrounding it are activated. The magnets are activated in sequence, making the movement of the wheel predictable in the extreme. As long as the stepper – motor is sized properly for your application, you can predict its movement with extraordinary accuracy.
stepper motor5
Stepper motor
  • The more teeth your gear wheel has, the smoother the operation of your stepper and the more precise its predictability. This is because the increments through which the stepper gear moves are equal divisions of its full circumference, measured by the teeth.

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Stepper motor
  • The electromagnets arranged around the gear wheel are powered by external circuitry, often circuitry made on a micro controller board. The power sent to the magnets causes them to attract points on the stepper wheel in turn, hence the rotation.

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Stepper motor
  • The rotating motion of the stepper–motor wheel can be jerky if there are only a limited number of teeth. This is because a large tooth winds past the magnetised point before snapping back into its field. That’s why the more teeth you have on your motor, the smoother it will operate.