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Chapter 4: Training and Conditioning Techniques

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  1. Chapter 4: Training and Conditioning Techniques

  2. Reduce InjuryPrepare the Athlete

  3. Athletic Trainers and Strength and Conditioning Coaches • Cooperative relationship that serves to condition athletes in an effort to minimize injury and maximize performance • Knowledge of flexibility, strength, and cardiorespiratory endurance is necessary • Many strength coaches are certified through the National Strength and Conditioning Association

  4. Athletic trainer may be called upon to review programs/make suggestions • Take into consideration components of particular sport and injury prevention • Rehabilitation of injuries is the responsibility of the athletic trainer • Different settings (professional, college, high school) will require differing levels of supervision by the ATC

  5. Periodization in Training and Conditioning • Traditional seasons no longer exist for serious athletes • Periodization • Achieve peak performance • Decrease injuries and overtraining • Program that spans various seasons • Modify program relative to athlete’s needs

  6. Macrocycle • Complete training cycle • Seasonal approach based on preseason, in-season, and off-season • Changes in intensity, volume, specificity of training occur in order to achieve peak levels of fitness for competition • Broken into mesocycles (lasting weeks or months)

  7. Mesocycles • Transition period: • Follows last competition (early off-season) • Unstructured (escape rigors of training) • Preparatory period: • Off-season • Hypertropy/endurance phase (Low intensity with high volume) • Allows for development of endurance base • Lasts several weeks to 2 months • Strength Phase • Power Phase (High intensity/ pre-season)

  8. Preparatory period (continued) • Strength Phase • Intensity and volume increase to moderate levels • Power Phase (High intensity/ pre-season) • Volume is decreased to allow adequate recovery • Competition period: • May last a < week or several months for seasonal sports • High intensity, low volume, skill training sessions • May incorporate microcycles (1-7 days) • Designed to ensure peak on days of competition

  9. Cross Training • Training for a sport with substitutions of alternative activities (carryover value) • Useful in transition and preparatory periods • Variety to training regimen • Should be discontinued prior to preseason as it is not sport-specific

  10. Warm-up/Cool-down Motivation Overload and SAID principle Consistency/routine Progression Intensity Specificity Individuality Relaxation/Minimize Stress Safety Principles of Conditioning and Training

  11. Warm-up • Precaution against unnecessary musculoskeletal injury and soreness • May enhance certain aspects of performance • Prepares body physiologically for physical work • Stimulates cardiorespiratory system, enhancing circulation and blood flow to muscles • Increases metabolic processes, core temperature, and muscle elasticity

  12. General • Activities which bring a general warming to the body(break a sweat) • Not related to sport Specific • Specific to sport • Stretching, jogging, running, throwing, catching Should last 10-15 minutes resulting in effects that will last 45 minutes

  13. Cool-down • Essential component of workout • Bring body back to resting state • 5-10 minutes in duration • Often ignored • Decreased muscle soreness following training if time used to stretch after workout

  14. Improving and Maintaining Flexibility • Ability to move a joint(s) smoothly through a full range of motion (ROM) • Decreased ROM results in: • Decreased performance capabilities • Uncoordinated/awkward movements • Predisposes athlete to injury • Good flexibility is essential for successful physical performance • Recommended by athletic trainers to prevent injury

  15. Factors That Limit Flexibility • Bony structures • Tissue approximation • Excessive fat • Muscle and tendon lengths • Connective tissue • Scarring and contractures • Skin

  16. Range of Motion(ROM) Active range of motion = dynamic flexibility • Ability to move a joint with little resistance • Passive range of motion = static flexibility • Motion of joint to end points without muscle contraction • Must be able to move through unrestricted range • Must have elasticity for additional stretch encountered during activity

  17. Agonist vs. Antagonist Muscles • Joints are capable of multiple movements • Example: • Quadriceps will extend knee with contraction • Hamstrings will stretch during extension • Quads (muscle producing movement) referred to as agonist • Muscle undergoing stretch referred to as antagonist • Agonist and antagonist work together to produce smooth coordinated movements

  18. Stretching Techniques Ballistic • Bouncing movement in which repetitive contractions of agonist work to stretch antagonist muscle • Spindles tighten instead of relax • Possible soreness (soccer example)

  19. Static stretching • Passively stretching • 6-8 second hold • Go to point of pain and back off and hold for 30 seconds (3 to 4 times) • Controlled, less chance of injury • Not dynamic

  20. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation • Physical therapy for neuromuscular paralysis • Slow-reversal-hold-relax • Contract-relax • Hold-relax • Ten second push, ten second relax • Best technique to improve flexibility • Autogenic inhibition (push = tension) • Reciprocal inhibition (pull = relax)

  21. Neurophysiological Basis of Stretching Stretch Reflex • Muscle is placed on stretch(muscle spindle) • Muscle spindles fire relaying info. to spinal cord • Spinal cord relays message to golgi tendon and increases tension • After 6 seconds golgi tendon organ (GTO) relays signal for muscle tension to decrease • Prevents injury - protective mechanism

  22. With static stretching golgi tendons are able to override impulses from muscle spindle following initial reflex resistance • Allows muscle to remain stretched without injury • PNF benefits greatly from these principles • With slow-reversal hold technique, maximal contraction of muscle stimulates GTO reflex relaxation before stretch applied

  23. Relaxation of antagonist during contraction = autogenic inhibition • During relaxation phase, antagonist is placed under stretch but assisted by agonist contraction to pull further • Contraction elicits additional relaxation of antagonist (protect against injury) • Referred to as reciprocal inhibition

  24. Flexibility vs. Strength • Co-exist • Muscle bound = zero flexibility • Strength training will provide individual with ability to develop dynamic flexibility through full range of motion • Develop more powerful and coordinated movements

  25. Measuring Range of Motion • Various devices have been designed to accommodate joint sizes and complexities of movement • Goniometer most widely used device • Protractor (degrees) that utilizes alignment of two arms parallel to longitudinal axis of two segments involved in motion • Relatively accurate tool for measurement

  26. Flexibility, Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Power

  27. Muscle Strength, Power, and Endurance Strength: ability to generate force against resistance Power: is the relationship between strength and time Muscular endurance: repetitive muscular contractions (increase strength = increase endurance

  28. Muscle Contractions • Isometric contraction • No length change occurs during contraction • Pro: quick, effective, cheap, good for rehab • Con: only works at one point in ROM • Isotonic contraction • Concentric- shortening of muscle with contraction in an effort to overcome more resistance • Eccentric - lengthening of muscle with contraction because load is greater than force being produced • Both are considered dynamic movements

  29. Fast Twitch vs. Slow Twitch • Motor units with distinct metabolic and contractile capability Slow twitch (Type I): • Fatigue resistant • Time necessary to produce force is greater • Long duration, aerobic type activities • Generally major constituent of postural muscles

  30. Fast twitch (Type II) • Fatigue • Anaerobic in nature • High force in short amount of time • Produce powerful movements • A vs. B Individual make-up • Muscles contain both types of fibers • Muscle functioning impacts ratios (postural vs. powerful movement) • Genetically determined Metabolic capabilities can change in response to training

  31. Factors that Determine Levels of Muscular Strength • Hypertrophy vs. Atrophy • Size of muscle: function of diameter and number of fibers • Neuromuscular efficiency • Biomechanical factors • Overtraining (psychologically, physiologically) • Reversibility

  32. Physiology of Strength Development • Three theories of muscle hypertrophy: • Increase in number of fibers • Infusion of blood - transient hypertrophy • Increase in protein myofilament number and size • PROVEN • Other enhancements due to training • Increased noncontractile tissue strength, bone mineral content, aerobic/anaerobic enzymes, enhanced oxygen uptake

  33. Techniques of Resistance Training • Progressive resistance exercise • Overload principle must be applied • Must work muscle at increasingly higher intensities to enhance strength over time • If intensity of training does not increase, but training continues, muscle strength will be sustained

  34. Overload Principle • Activity must be increased and upgraded constantly in order to gain a higher response from the body • Work at or near maximum capacity • Applicable to conditioning and training

  35. Isometric Exercises • Contraction where muscle length remains unchanged • Muscle contraction that lasts 10 seconds and should be perform 5-10 times/daily • Pro: quick, effective, cheap, good for rehab • Con: only works at one point in ROM, produces spiking of blood pressure due to Valsalva maneuver

  36. Progressive Resistance Exercises (Isotonic training) • Shortening/lengthening • Concentric vs. Eccentric • Various types of equipment can be utilized • (Free weights, machine weight) • Spotter is necessary for free weight training to prevent injury, motivate partner and instruct on technique

  37. Concentric and eccentric training should be incorporated for greatest strength improvement • Concentric phase of lift should last 1-2 seconds, eccentric phase 2-4 seconds • Variations exist between free and machine weight lifting • Motion restrictions, levels of muscular control required, amount of weight that can be lifted

  38. Terminology associated with weight training • Repetitions • Repetition maximum • One repetition maximum • Set • Intensity • Recovery period • Frequency

  39. When training should be able to perform 3 sets of 6-8 repetitions • Increases should occur in increments of 10% • 1 RM can be utilized measure maximum amount of weight that can be lifted - must be very careful • Training of a particular muscle group should occur 3-4 times per week (not on successive days)

  40. Muscular Endurance vs. Strength • Training for endurance enhances strength and vice versa • Training for strength should involve lower repetitions at heavier weight • Training for endurance requires lower weight at 12-15 repetitions

  41. Isokinetic Training • Muscle contraction at a constant velocity • Maximal and constant resistance throughout the full range of motion • Maximal effort = Maximal strength gains • Disadvantages • Cost • Need for maximal effort/motivation • Rehab

  42. Circuit Training • Combination of exercise stations • 8 - 12 stations, 3 times through • Design for different training goals • Flexibility • Calisthenics • Aerobic exercise

  43. Calisthenic Strengthening Exercises • Free exercise • Isotonic training • Gravity’s involvement determines level of intensity • Full range of motion, may incorporate holding phase • Pull-ups, push-ups, back extensions, leg extensions