TRAINING AND CONDITIONING TECHNIQUES Chapter 4
Overview • Lack of physical fitness is one of the primary causes of sports injury. • Coaches and athletic trainers should work cooperatively to supervise training and conditioning programs. • The coach and athletic trainer must possess sound understanding of the principles of training and conditioning relative to flexibility, strength, and cardiovascular endurance.
Relationship Between Coaches, ATC’s, and CSCS’s • All must work together for the common good. • High schools may not have ATC’s or CSCS’s • The coach is responsible in their absence • It is important to implement all aspects of a strength and conditioning program • Flexibility • Strength • Cardiovascular fitness (aerobic, anaerobic) • Nutrition etc.
Periodization • Periodization: organizes a training and conditioning program into cycles • Macrocycle: usually one year-long cycle • Preseason • In-season • Post-season • Off-season
Periodization • Mesocycle: usually lasts weeks or even months • Transition (post-season): recreational exercise • Preparatory (off-season): emphasis for gains • Hypertrophy phase: low intensity and high volume • Strength phase: moderate intensity and moderate volume • Power phase: high intensity and low volume • Competition (in-season): maintainance • Includes a mix of intensities and volumes • Microcycles: during a week may help the athlete peak at the end of the week. • Intense early in the week • Light at the end of the week
Principles of Conditioning • Warm-up and Cool-down • Motivation • Overload • Consistency • Progression • Intensity • Specificity
Principles of Conditioning • Specificity • Individuality • Minimize stress • Safety first
Improving and Maintaining Flexibility • Flexibility: the ability to move a joint or series of joints smoothly and easily throughout a full range of motion. • An athlete who has a restricted range of motion will realize a decrease in performance capabilities. • Flexibility is important in preventing injury to the musculotendinous and skeletal anatomy.
Factors That Limit Flexibility • Bony structure • Excessive fat • Skin • Muscles and tendons • Connective tissues • With the exception of bony structure, age, and gender, all of the other factors that limit flexibility may be altered to increase range of joint motion.
Range of Motion • Active Range of Motion (dynamic flexibility) • Passive Range of Motion (static flexibility) • Resistive Range of Motion (strength)
Stretching Techniques • The goal of any effective flexibility program should be to improve the range of motion at a given articulation by altering the extensibility of the musculotendinous units that produce movement at that joint.
Stretching Techniques • Warm-up • Stretch to the point of tightness • Stretching is specific only to the muscle you stretch. • Avoid stretching joints and ligaments • Stretch slowly and under control • It is recommended to stretch 5 to 6 times per week.
Stretching Techniques • Ballistic stretching • Involves a bouncing movement • May cause muscle soreness • Static stretching • Passive stretch (hold for 30 seconds) • Is very safe to perform • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) • Involves a combination of stretches and contractions • Use a 10 sec. push phase and a 10 sec. relax phase
Stretching Techniques • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) • Slow-reversal-hold-relax • Contract relax • Hold relax • PNF is based on the “stretch reflex” • Muscle spindles – reflexively contract • Golgi tendon organs – reflexive relaxation • Golgi tendons override the muscle spindles over time
Stretching Techniques • Autogenic inhibition: relaxation of the muscle during or after contraction (tension). • Uses the contract relax method • Reciprocal inhibition: a contraction of the opposite muscle causes a reflex relaxation in the muscle to be stretched. • Uses the slow-reversal-hold technique • Uses the hold relax method
Stretching Techniques • Increased ROM can be determined with a goniometer at the joint. • Other flexibility tests (tape measure) • Sit and reach • Trunk extension test • Trunk rotation test • Shoulder lift test
Stretching Techniques • Stretch by body area • Stretch by sport • Stretch by muscle • Stretch by necessity
Strength Training • Muscular strength • Muscular endurance • Muscular power
Strength Training • Skeletal muscle is capable of three types of contractions. • Isometric • Static • Concentric • Eccentric • Isokinetic
Strength Training • There are three basic types of muscle fibers • Slow-twitch (type I) • Fast-twitch (type IIa) • Fast-twitch (type IIb) • It now appears that there can be almost any change of these fibers in response to training.
Strength Training • Factors that determine muscular strength • Hypertrophy vs atrophy • Size of the muscle • Neuromuscular efficiency • Biomechanical factors • Mechanical (leverage) advantages (genetic) • Length-tension relationship (optimum is 90 deg.) • Overtraining • Reversibility
Strength Training • Physiology of strength development • Fiber splitting theory • Capillary density with training • Myofilament increase (protein synthesis) • Increased bone and collagen increase • Increased enzymes • Enhanced energy use of the muscle etc.
Strength Training • Techniques of Resistance Training • Isometrics (abtronics do not transfer) • Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE’s) • Isotonics • Overload (reps? Sets? Intensity? Frequency? Recovery?) • Progression • Goals (strength vs endurance) • Free weights vs machine weights • Circuit training (stations)
Strength Training • Techniques of Resistance Training • Plyometrics • Cross training • Calisthenic strengthening exercise • Females vs Males
Aerobic & Anaerobic Conditioning • Cardiorespiratory Endurance: the ability to perform whole-body large muscle activities for extended periods of time. • Involves the transport and utilization of oxygen • Heart • Lungs • Blood vessels • Blood • Measured by maximum aerobic capacity (Vo2 Max) • Mostly genetically determined potential • Training determines how close you can come to your potential
Aerobic & Anaerobic Conditioning • Measured indirectly by heart rate • Training Effect causes stroke volume to increase while the heart rate is reduced at a given exercise load (cardiac output = SV x HR). • Fatigue is closely related to the percentage of Max VO2 that a particular workload demands.
Aerobic & Anaerobic Conditioning • Energy Systems • The Energy Systems • ATP (retreived by creatine phosphate) • Glucose / Glycogen • Free Fatty Acids • Protein • Aerobic -vs- Anaerobic Metabolism • They function simultaneously • Types of activities …..
Aerobic & Anaerobic Conditioning • Continuous Training (aerobic) • Mode: anything that raises your heart rate • Frequency: 3 – 6 times a week • Duration: at least 20 minutes • Intensity • Maximum HR = 220 – age (.75) • Karvonen Equation Target HR Zone = RHR + (.75 [MHR – RHR])
Aerobic & Anaerobic Conditioning • Interval Training: intermittent activities with periods of work with active recovery. • More anaerobic • Includes a training-recovery ratio • Fartlek Training: “speed play”
Fitness Assessment • Tests may be used to assess flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, muscular power, cardiorespiratory endurance, speed, balance, agility, or quickness depending upon the stated goals of the training and conditioning program. • See page 107
NUTRITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS Chapter 5
Athletes who practice sound nutritional habits reduce the likelihood of injury, and enhance performance through the development of strength, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory endurance. 57
Nutrition Basics • Nutrition: is the science of the substances that are found in food that are essential to life. • 6 classes of nutrients • Carbohydrates • Fats • Proteins • Vitamins • Minerals • Water
Energy Sources • Carbohydrates • Should account for 55% - 70% of an athletes total caloric intake. • Sugars (simple) • Monosacharides (single sugars) • Disacharides (two monosacharides) • Starches (complex carbohydrates) • Fiber (non digestable plants)
Energy Sources • Fats: should be less than 30% of total calories • Saturated (are from animal products) • Unsaturated (are from plants and are liquid at room temperature) • Monounsaturated • Polyunsaturated • Fat substitutes are a good alternative because they contain no cholesterol and 80% less calories.
Energy Sources • Proteins: the building blocks of the human body • Amino Acids: obtained through food are referred to as the essential amino acids. • Most of the proteins from animal foods contain all of the essential amino acids that humans require and are called “complete proteins.” • The increase in muscle mass that result from conditioning and training are associated with only a small increase in protein requirements that can easily be met with the usual diet and therefore supplements are not necessary.
Regulatory Nutrients • Vitamins: regulators of body processes • Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fats • A, D, E, and K (see table 5-1) • Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water • C – used to build bone, teeth, connective tissue and strengthen the immune system • B’s – used to regulate metabolism
Regulatory Nutrients • Antioxidants protect cells from destructive agents like oxygen and lactic acid. • Vitamin C: fruits and vegetables • Vitamin E: vegetable oils, some fruits and vegetables • Beta-carotene: a plant pigment found in dark green, yellow or orange fruits and vegetables. • Deficiency disease: results from a lack of any nutrient. • For most people supplements are a waste of money. • A wide variety of foods in the diet can prevent the need for supplementation.
Regulatory Nutrients • Minerals: more than 20 elements have an essential role in the body and therefore need to be supplied by the diet. • Magnesium: needed for energy-supplying reactions • Sodium and Potassium: are important for transmission of nerve impulses. • Iron: needed for energy metabolism and is assisted with protein to form hemoglobin (to carry O2). • Once again minerals can be obtained by eating a variety of foods and supplementation is not necessary.
Regulatory Nutrients • Water: is the most essential of all of the nutrients in the body. • 60% of all body weight • Necessary for temperature control • Necessary for energy production • Necessary for digestion • Necessary for elimination of waste
Regulatory Nutrients • Water • Replacing fluid after heavy sweating is far more important than replacing electrolytes • Dehydration • Fatigue • Nausea • Exhaustion • Fainting • Electrolyte requirements • Sodium, cholride, potassium, magnesium, and calcium • Can be sufficiently replaced with a balanced diet
Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations • A nutrient requirement is that amount of the nutrient that is needed to prevent the nutrient’s deficiency disease. • A nutrient recommendation is that which will prevent the deficiency disease for nutrients and calories of a given food. • Recommended RDA helps consumers compare nutritional value of foods. • Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) or adequate intake (AI)
Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations • Food Labels: percentages of daily values based on a standard 2,000 calorie diet. • The Food Pyramid: specifies the minimum number of servings that should be eaten daily with examples of the foods to eat (pg. 122).
Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations • Exercise increases the need for energy, not for proteins, vitamins, and minerals. • A megadose of a nutrient supplement is essentially an overdose. • An increased need for nutrients is easily fulfilled when the athlete eats more nutritious foods. • Exceptions include calcium (osteoporosis) • Exceptions include iron (anemia)
Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations • Protein supplementation • RDA = .8 grams per kilogram • Athletes = 1 – 1.5 grams per kilogram • Athletes diets typically easily exceed these requirements (1.8 – 4.4 grams per kilogram).
Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations • Creatine supplementation • Free creatine • Phophocreatine • Stored in skeletal muscle • Used to produce ATP during anaerobic activity • Side Effects
Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations • Sugar and Performance • Simple sugars (anaerobic benefit) • The insulin response is not as detrimental as once believed. • Complex sugars (aerobic benefit) • Provides long lasting energy
Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations • Caffeine: is a stimulant • Can cause irritability, nervousness, increased heart rate and headaches • Enhances the use of fat for energy during endurance exercise • Enhances calcium absorption in the muscles for muscle contractions
Nutrient Requirements and Recommendations • Alcohol • Provides little nutritional value • 7 calories per gram • Depressant • Decreases coordination • Slows reaction times • Decreases mental alertness • Diuretic effect
Preevent Nutrition • Pre Game Meal: proposes to provide the competitor with sufficient energy and fluids for competition • Eating preferences of the athlete need to be considered • Digestability are important • Liquid food supplement advantages • Eating fast foods • Glycogen Supercompensation • Fat loading