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Second-Order Conditioning

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  1. Second-Order Conditioning • Pair CS1 with US • Pair CS2 with CS1 • CS2 produces CR • CS1 serves as US for CS2

  2. Blair & Shimp (1992) • Unpleasant experience paired with music • Brand paired with music

  3. Design • Pre-conditioning phase • Subjects listen to theme music • Sessions during bad weather • Usually, music induces mood, so US • But, here treat music as CS1 and bad weather as US • Conditioning phase • Fictitious sportswear brand paired with theme music • Brand is CS2 • Control group • Random pairing of CS2 and CS1 • Test • Measure affect toward brand

  4. Terminology • Article uses older terminology • Music as US, not CS1

  5. Results • Negative conditioning to brand in pre-conditioning group • Music acquired negative affect • Negative affect transferred to brand

  6. Implications • Music choice in advertising significant • May have previously conditioned connotations • Enhance or impede intended effect • Transfer to brand • Overshadowing effects • Popular music • More salient than brand (ignore CS)

  7. US Pre-exposure • Repeatedly present US • More difficult to subsequently condition CS • US occurs without predictive stimulus

  8. Second Order Classical • US is affective state, mood, etc. • CS1 is celebrity, expert, consumer, or TPO • CS2 is brand

  9. Celebrities • Famous people • Associations • Popular • Rich • Attractive

  10. Experts • Known or unknown • e.g., scientist, doctor, lawyer, mechanic, etc. • Associations • Knowledge • Authorities

  11. “Typical”Consumer • Average shopper • Real or fake • Association • Nothing to gain (leads to trust) • Credibility

  12. Third Party Organizations • Popular in advertising • Independent organizations • Rank, rate, or promote a product • Quality indicators

  13. Effectiveness of TPOs • Work through credibility vector • Indicate quality • TPO won’t want to lose public opinion • Won’t endorse a poor product • Good for • Products of high financial value and low psychological risk

  14. Social Learning Theory • Bandura • Observational learning • Attributes of model and learner

  15. Model Rewardingness Authority Dominance Similarity Sincerity Learner Uncertainty Age Sex Characteristics

  16. Operant • Observe • Reinforcement or punishment • Imitate with expectation • Generalized imitation

  17. Attractiveness • Important for • Celebrity endorsers • Less important (but not ignored) for • Experts, typical consumers

  18. Attractiveness • Can act as US itself • Innate predispositions • Evolved • Health, genotype • Evolutionary psychology • Mating, social interactions

  19. Nature vs. Nurture Debate • Is attractiveness/beauty learned or innate? • Until early 1980s, common consensus was learned • Langlois and collegues • Infant gaze studies • Tips to innate predispositions (with subsequent learning)

  20. Attractiveness as US • With actors and celebrities, usually attractive • Both the recognition of the individual and association with specific traits • Innate attractiveness • Consider • Antonio Banderas • Danny DeVito www.banderas-mall.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Image:Danny_DeVito_2008.jpg

  21. Cognitive Factor • Attention and recall • Celebrities, experts • Associated with specific aspect of product • Athlete with sports car (fast) • Ex-drug addict with anti-drug campaign (credibility)

  22. Appropriateness • Any celebrity/expert for any product? • Achieving a match • Changes in celebrity/expert’s status? • e.g., O.J. Simpson, Michael Jackson, Kobe Bryant, Madonna, Kate Moss, etc. • Associated with brand • Change in brand status? • e.g., tobacco

  23. Ohanian (1991) • Attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness • Use of product • For self or for gift • Male or female consumer

  24. Fictitious Pairings • Celebrities and products • Madonna and designer jeans • John McEnroe and tennis rackets • Tom Selleck and men’s cologne • Linda Evans and perfume en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Madonna-Material-Girl-333295.jpg espn.go.com/classic/biography/s/McEnroe_John.html tomselleck.tv-website.com/ www.geocities.com/lindaevans9/

  25. Questionnaires • Section 1 • Familiarity with celebrity? • Demographic information • Section 2 • Credibility scale • Section 3 • Subject’s likeliness to purchase product • For self or for gift

  26. Subjects • Residential neighborhoods • Churches • Graduate and undergraduate students

  27. Results • Age and gender • No significant impact on evaluation of celebrities’ attractiveness, trustworthiness, or expertise • Nor on likelihood to purchase a product promoted by the celebrity

  28. Celebrity Differences • John McEnroe • Least attractive and trustworthy • High levels of perceived expertise with sports gear • Linda Evans • High attractiveness and trustworthiness ratings • Only average perceived expertise with perfume

  29. Celebrity Attractiveness and Trustworthiness • Generally perceived as important by advertisers, but: • Minimal impact on subjects’ intention to purchase product • Most celebrities are attractive; minimal range, so no differentiation • Celebrities are paid for their endorsements, so not perceived as trustworthy • Expertise the determinant of intention to purchase

  30. Conclusions • To be useful celebrity spokespersons should be • Knowledgeable • Experienced • Qualified to endorse the product

  31. Celebrity • Virgin • Christina Aguilera • Virgin mobile phone • UK release • The devil makes work for idle thumbs. Keep yours busy. Text Virgin Mobile for 3P.

  32. Celebrity • Commodore Vic 20 • Priceline • William Shatner • From playing on Star Trek status to playing on Shatner status

  33. Celebrity • Independence Air • Dennis Miller • Comedian • Started SNL in 1980s • Currently, talk radio show • Endorses conservative opinions, supports Republican candidates, pro military action

  34. Celebrity • 7/11 • S.H.E. • Selina Ren, Hebe Tian, Ella Chen • Taiwanese girl band • 10 albums, $4.5 million sales since 2001, multiple TV roles

  35. Celebrity • Power drink • Arnold Schwarzenegger • Japanese commercial • Sometimes celebrity does cross cultures…but the ad might not

  36. Expert • Nike • Tiger Woods • Use the product, be like the expert

  37. Expert • Chesterfields • Opinion of a physician • Trusted

  38. (Anti-) Expert • BT information technology • Gordon Ramsay • Area of specialization

  39. Expert • Ask an expert • Future Shop • Spoofing use of experts in ads

  40. Typical Consumer • Tide • Moroccan commercial, 1993

  41. Typical Consumer • Salem's cigarettes • Supposedly average couple • Note music score • Gives performance information

  42. Co-Branding • Higher order conditioning association • Two brands are deliberately paired • Favourable attitude to second brand due to positive attitude to first brand • MI

  43. + + BMW Z3 Sony Mini Disk Sales increase No benefit Does it Work? • Well… sometimes

  44. Prior Associations • First brand should be: familiar, popular • Coca-Cola • Celebrities, characters, Olympics, concepts, music, even colour • Not an ideal co-branding candidate • Change the context • Present familiar brand in different context, causing increased attention & processing

  45. Belongingness • See Rescorla & Furrow (1977); classic study on 2nd order stimulus similarity increasing learning rate • Similar to product-model match • Need to find some way to link two brands • Worked: Bill Cosby and Jello • Failed: Bill Cosby and E.F. Hutton

  46. Similarity • Too much similarity can work against brand • E.g., see Rescorla & Gillan (1980), exp. 2 • Mistake other brands for co-brand • Salem cigarettes • Freshness positioning • Other brands followed this • Consumers made association to more familiar Salem ads, benefiting Salem

  47. Bidirectional? • Associative conditioning could work both ways • Familiar brand (CS1) can be influenced by targeted brand (CS2) • Negative affect from targeted brand • Greater attention paid to familiar brand; more processing • Erosion (additional associations weaken those initially created)

  48. Changing CS1 Post 2nd Order Conditioning • Rescorla (1973), Holland & Rescorla (1975a,b) • 2nd order conditioning • Tone & light as CSs, food as US • Devalue US via satiation or rapid rotation; extinction of CS1 • Reduced CR for CS1 but not for CS2 • Subsequently restoring US returns some CR for CS1 (not a repairing of CS1-US here)

  49. Brand Counterfeiting • Illegally made products resembling genuine product • Traditionally lower quality • Starting to shift for some counterfeits • Outsourced factories run extra “fake” shift • Sometimes shifts counterfeiters into legitimacy • Becoming a serious problem • Over $600 billion in sales

  50. Types • Deceptive • Consumer unaware product is fake • Nondeceptive • Consumer is aware product is fake • Especially prevalent in luxury brand markets