EAST COAST FEVER DISEASE Group 3 • Hans Cosmas • Laurence laurent • PumuloNyambe • Kelvin Nakara • AnnilindaMekas • Daniel Mbilinyi • Peter laroya
INTRODUCTION East Coast fever (ECF), is a form of bovine theileriasis, caused by protozoan parasite known as Theileriaparva.The disease is transmitted by infected ticks Rhipicephalusappendiculatus(brown ear ticks)
East coast fever is a major disease of cattle in eleven countries in eastern, central and southern Africa. (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, DRC, Sudani, Rwanda, Burundi)
Intro cont… • E C F was first recorded in 1569 by Father Monclaro. But it was not recognized. • In 1901-1903 the disease was started to spread from Tanganyika in Dar-es-salaam coastal area to South Africa by transportation of cattle.. • In 1904 Dr. Theiler diagnosed the disease clearly and stated that is originated from Eastern Africa from Dar-es-salam coastal area. • Their it’s were it got it’s name EAST COAST FEVER.
Description cont… Classification of the causative agent • Kingdom: Animalia • Phylum: Apicomplexa • Class: Piroplasmia • Order: Piroplasmida • Family: Theileriidae • Genus: Theileria • Species: parva S. Theileriaparva
Description cont… • This disease attacks lymphocytes, (Small white blood cells that bear the major responsibility for carrying out the activities of the immune system). It consist 25% of white blood cell. • T. parvathen activates the host cells' mitotic (doubling of cells) pathway, and multiplies along with the host cells.
Transmission: • Corridor Disease acute and usually fatal form of East Coast Fever that occurs when T. parva is transmitted from African buffalo to cattle. • Buffalo appear to be asymptomatic carriers. • The main vector for T. parva is the tickRhipicephalusappendiculatus. (brown ear ticks) • After the tick sucks blood on the affected host, the parasite develop in side the tick and stay in the salivary gland. • Theileriasporozoites are transmitted to susceptible animals in the saliva of the feeding tick. • It can also be transmitted through sharing of needle from infected host to clean host during treatment.
Clinical signs: • Tick–infested animals with a fever and enlarged lymph nodes; for the ear is the preferred feeding site of the vector. Enlarged lymph node Tick infested at ear parts Enlarge lymph node
Clinical singns cont… • Loss of appetite. • Nasal discharge. • Soft coughing. • Diarrhea with mucus and/or blood. • Constipation. consist of hard, dry stools that are painful or difficult to pass. • Reproductive – Abortion. • Sudden death. • Emaciation (becoming thin). The clinical phase usually lasts 2-3 weeks, but death occasionally occurs within a week.
Diagnosis • On post-mortem examination, the lymphoid system (tissues around the throat) is severely damaged. • Respiratory changes are marked, Froth (bubbles) are often present in the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles due to pulmonary oedema (accumulation of fluids in lungs).
Diagnosis cont… • Necrosis (death) of the lymphoid tissue (including lymph nodes and bone marrow) may be seen. • Lymph nodes and spleen may be hyperplastic (overgrown). • Petechiae (Tiny purple or red spots) may also be seen throughout the intestines and abomasums in ruminants.
Affected wildlife species: • T. parvainfects African buffalo (Synceruscaffer), Indian water buffalo, waterbuck and Eland. Most of wild animal are carriers of this disease.
Threats to wildlife • For Indian water buffalo, the disease is fatal can even cause death. • In Africa there is no a case of wild animal dead because of this disease.
Disease management in the wild. • Since this disease is so fatal when transmitted from buffalo to livestock, the good way of managing this disease is by RING VACCINATION. • This disease can be controlled in livestock through several ways. • Treat by injecting parvaquone and buparvaquone drug. • Chemical pesticides (acaricides) are applied in dipping bath or spray races. • Use of breed cattle with good ability to acquire immune resistance to the vector ticks.
CONCLUSION • Livestock are much infected with the disease compared to the wild animals which are in most cases carriers. Therefore, ring vaccination and other relevant control measures such as chemical pesticides (acaricides) applied in dipping bath, development of disease-resistant ticks must be highly encourage along the protected areas villages.
Reference • Brown C. & Torres A., Eds. (2008). - USAHA Foreign Animal Diseases, Seventh Edition. • Coetzer J.A.W. & Tustin R.C. Eds. (2004). - Infectious Diseases of Livestock, 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press. • Fauquet C., Fauquet M. & Mayo M.A. (2005). - Virus Taxonomy: VIII Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press. www.google.com/east coast fever.