Rites of passage Duduiala Ionut Adrian Clasa 9C
CultureIndia is marked by a high degree of syncretism. Many practices, languages, customs and monuments serve as the Indian example inspired architectural structures Islamic architectureAs Taj Mahal, Are the legacy of dynasty Mogo. Therefore, Indian culture is the result of traditions that combined heterogeneous elements present on the Indian civilizations as a result of invasion or migration, and that marked the country at a time.
We must recognize that the way to be, habits and behavior of people in India do not really look like anything were we accustomed to consider normal or civilized. It's somewhat strange to see people who walk with pierced nose without being fan heavy metal, but no one explained how all tried to find out some of Indian customs. Especially those directly concerning women there. Is not required to wear nose ring to form a ring. It can be both a circle easy metal, and a loaded hoop of precious stones and pearls, or just a small diamond earring screw trapped inside your nostrils. When the circle nose ring is loaded with heavy decorations that make it difficult to sustain, there are those chains fine ring connecting the ear lobe or nose hair, reducing the weight of nostril jewelry.
After the traditional, ax not successful, tough Indians resorted to the most sacred and most powerful force. fire. Ciomolanga Tree, popularly known as the Fir tree was felled to the joy and satisfaction of the entire tribe. These heroes of small communities were rewarded with traditional drinks click: hop juice and grape juice. During this ritual the ancestors, some Indians, in their own way let the Indians have gone to meet Cumans came to visit, welcoming her with barbaric rituals learned in Asia Minor. However because most brave tribesmen in the night what Indians have tough to warm the home.
The Nomadic Tribes survived on hunting, and the bison was their main source of food. Some Tribes have described as part of the 'Buffalo crops' (sometimes called, somewhat misleadingly, the 'Great Plains Culture'). American buffalo, or simply buffalo, is the commonly used (but inaccurate) name for the American Bison. These animals were the chief source for items which Plains Indians made from their flesh, hide and bones, such as food, cups, decorations, crafting tools, knives, and clothing. (See Bison hunting). The Tribes kept moving following the seasonal grazing and migration of bison. The Plains Indians lived in teepees because they were easily disassembled and allowed the nomadic life of following game. When Spanishhorses were obtained, the Plains Tribes rapidly integrated them into their daily lives. By the early 18th century some Tribes had fully adopted a horse culture. The Comanche were among the first to commit to a fully mounted nomadic lifestyle. 1 ] This occurred by the 1730s, when they had acquired enough horses to put all their people on horseback. 
Although the Plains Indians Hunted other animals, such as elk or antelope, bison range was the primary food source. Before horses were introduced, hunting was a more complicated process. The Native Americans would surround the bison, and then try to herd them off cliffs or into places where they could be more easily killed. A commonly used technique was the Piskin method. The tribesmen would build a corral and have people herd the buffalo into it to confine them in a space where they could be killed. The Plains Indians constructed the V-shaped funnel, about a mile long, made of fallen trees, rocks, etc.. Sometimes buffalo could be lured into a trap by one of the Tribe covering himself with a buffalo skin and imitating the call of the animals. Before their adoption of guns, the Plains Indians Hunted with Spears,Bows and arrows, and various forms of clubs. The Spanish brought horses to America, but were reluctant to trade them to Plains Indians or to teach equestrian skills. As a result few Plains Indians were able to acquire and use horses until the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 when the Spanish were temporarily forced to abandon New Mexico, leaving many horses. 2 ] Their ability to ride horses made hunting (and warfare) much easier. The Pueblo Indians, who had some knowledge equestrian, traded many of these horses to other Tribes, resulting in a rapid and wide distribution of horses and equestrian skills.  Their ability to ride horses made hunting (and warfare) much easier. With horses, the Plains Indians had the means and speed to overtake the Stampede or bison. The Plains Indians reduced the length of their Bows to three feet to accommodate their use on horseback. They continued to use Bows and arrows after the introduction of firearms, because guns took too long to reload and were too heavy. In the summer, many Tribes gathered in one place for hunting. The main hunting seasons were fall, summer, and spring. The harsh winter snow and mighty blizzards made it almost impossible to kill the bison.
There were also people that were Wakan, or blessed, who were also called shaman. To become Wakan, your prayers must be answered by the Great Spirit, or you must see a sign from him. Wakan were thought to possess great power. One of their jobs was to heal people, which is why they are sometimes also called "medicine men". The shamans were considered so important that they were the ones who decided when the time was right to hunt. Plains Indians believed that some objects possessed spiritual power or charm. One such item was the medicine bundle, which was a sack carrying items believed by the owner to be important. Items in the sack might include rocks, feathers, and more. Another object of great spiritual power was the shield. The shield was the most prized possession of any warrior, and he decorated it with many paintings and feathers. The spirits of animals drawn on the shield were thought to protect the owner. The most important group ceremony was the Sun Dance, in which participants danced for four days around a sacred object, and some would inflict harm upon themselves on purpose, all while staring at the sun. They believed this self-sacrifice would encourage powerful spirits to support and defend them
Many Indian tribes, including the Mayan, believed that they were sown from Pleiadians. Ancient Indian civilizations in North America developed during the last approximately 20.000 years, according to archaeologists. In accordance with Indian tribes living today, most of them say they were always here on the North American continent. Many archaeological periods, cultures, complex, and people have been identified in North America. They are generally divided into five periods. Paleo Indians were an ancient civilization that lived during the stage of lithic (18,000 BC - 8000 BC) and this is the first time we see stone tools. Archaic Period (8000 BC - 1000 BC), is divided into an early phase, middle, and late. During this period, we see the first evidence of sedentary farming practices. Formative stage, old people in North America has developed technology of ceramics, textiles, and food production developed. Social organization began to involve permanent towns and villages and ceremonial centers in the early civilizations of ancient India. During the Classic phase, we begin to see complex social structures, as ancient civilizations developed Indian craft specialization and the beginnings of metallurgy. During this period, we see the beginnings of large urban and ceremonial centers. During the Post-Classic phase (1000 BC - present), we see advanced metallurgy and social organization involving complex planning and militarism.
The boys of the tribe of Algonquin Indians in Quebec were taken in a closed area, often a cage, and he was given a hallucinogenic substance, known as wysoccan, which is said to be 100 times stronger than LSD. Purpose of the ritual was lost memories of childhood. Unfortunately some guys completely lost their memory and even the ability to speak. This ritual is practiced by members of tribes on the islands that make up the Republic of Vanuatu, both as a ritual of "increased" and the ritual celebration of the harvest. The men jump from a tower 30 feet with ankles bound with vine stalk. If jumping is done correctly, the person reaches the top of the head or shoulders of the earth. Unfortunately, any mistake can result in serious injury or even death Saritorile. The boys begin to participate in this ritual as circumcision at the age of 7 or 8 years, but are allowed to jump from a lower height. Mother held in her arms an object that symbolizes the boy's childhood, and while the child throws the subject of salt mother arms.
Algonquin Indians (Quebec)The boys of the tribe of Algonquin Indians in Quebec were taken in a closed area, often a cage, and he was given a hallucinogenic substance, known as wysoccan, which is said to be 100 times stronger than LSD. Purpose of the ritual was lost memories of childhood. Unfortunately some guys completely lost their memory and even the ability to speak. Indians of California is a somewhat isolated from the rest of the ethnic population in North America but with a character quite compact.Can we talk about a group of different tribes, composed of representatives of different linguistic families: hoka, penuti, algonkini, atabasci and gaiter. In northern California living: urokii, karokii, Sasta, etc..The central part of California was occupied by: vintunii, maidunii, mivokii, iokutsii, etc. pomo. And in the south live: sosonii, iuma and ciumasii.These tribes prevailed mainly plant food gathering, fishing and hunting. Agriculture was well developed, almost nonexistent.Semi-nomadic tribes led a life, moving according to the sources of food.
Initiating the Indians of CaliforniaAnother characteristic form of religion Indians of California is related to initiation. This system is a very complicated form and partly specific to each tribe.The tribal groups in north and center (vintuni, maidu, mivok, iuki etc.). Kuksu there cult. Kuksu - "big head" - is a mythological character of maidu and pomo tribes, whose role it plays masked men.These rituals are organized in a special hut, sea, was circulara.Iarna season in which organized this ritual.To participate in these rituals had met certain conditions, had access to only men, and they must be made as early as adolescence initierii.Astfel ritual cult of Kuksu, appears as a second stage of initierii.El can be considered as a form " preembrionara "the association in males.Another ritual prevalent in southern California, particularly original.Centrul whole ceremony is held using a beverage prepared from local plant with a Spanish name "toloache. Each individual had the right once in his life consumed by drinking it bautura.Starea induced of this drink every man cause unconsciousness and viziuni.Continutul these visions became for him an object of religious reverence for life. This content was different depending on individuals, so the subject was extremely diverse worship After this vision, the youth initiation ceremonies was subjected to severe post that last thirty days and also must pass certain physical tests similar to the rituals Australian final initiere.In young was lying on a heap of ants and was allowed to be pinching the ants, which are removed from the body of the young after a while with a wisp of urzici.Cu the ceremony ended.