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Rites of Passage. Samskaras Birth & Naming Sacred Thread Marriage Death Summary. Samskaras. There are 16 samskaras or rites of passage in a Hindu’s life. Nine of these samskaras take place during the early years of a Hindu’s life. Birth & Naming.

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Samskaras
  • Birth & Naming
  • Sacred Thread
  • Marriage
  • Death
  • Summary
samskaras
Samskaras
  • There are 16 samskaras or rites of passage in a Hindu’s life.
  • Nine of these samskaras take place during the early years of a Hindu’s life.
birth naming
Birth & Naming
  • 9 of the samskaras take place during early years.
  • Some of the most significant ones include.
  • The child’s head is shaved. This symbolises the removal of bad karma from previous lives.
  • Aum is written on the baby’s tongue in honey – this means that the child will associate the sound with sweetness.
sacred thread upanayana
Sacred Thread / Upanayana
  • Upanayana is the 10th samskara and marks beginning of the student ashrama.
  • Traditionally Upanayana was for brahmin, kshatriya and vaishya boys though now girls and some shudra and harijan boys also receive it.
  • Boys (and girls) take the thread aged 8-16
sacred thread the ceremony
Sacred Thread / the ceremony
  • The head is shaved leaving a tuft on the crown.
  • The boy washes & puts on a special dhoti.
  • The boy shares a special meal with his mother.
  • The priest conducts a homa (special ritual with sacred fire.)
  • The boy is given new clothes and the sacred thread is placed over his left shoulder so that it hangs diagonally across his chest to his right side.
  • The thread is worn for the rest of his life but will be replaced annually on Ganesha’s birthday.
sacred thread the meaning
Sacred Thread / the meaning
  • The 3 threads are said to signify the Tri-murti of Brahma, Vishnu & Shiva.& the 3 obligations 1. The obligation to promote knowledge. 2. The obligation to respect & care for parents and elders. 3. The obligation towards society.
  • The ceremony represents the boy moving from his mother’s care to the influence of his male relatives.
  • The thread is a physical reminder that God is all around you and remind you to control your body, mind and speech.
the marriage ceremony
The marriage ceremony
  • As with all aspects of Hinduism, marriages can be diverse.
  • All Hindu weddings are carried out by a priest.
  • The couple take seven steps around the Havan or sacred fire as laid down in the Law of Manu. The first step is for food, the second for strength, the third for wealth, the fourth for happiness, the fifth for children, the sixth for sustenance and the seventh for unity.
  • In addition to this they will often throw rice into the Havan to encourage the couple’s fertility, stand on a rock to represent the stability which marriage will bring to their lives, make offerings to deities and have prayers and hymns.
the purpose of marriage
The purpose of marriage
  • Marriage is viewed as a Gift from God which serves the following purposes.
  • To allow the couple to have sex.
  • To join two families together.
  • To allow the couple to share love & each other’s company.
  • To produce children.
  • To enable fulfillment of the householder stage of life.
a hindu funeral
A Hindu funeral

The funeral pyre

The funeral ghats are on the banks of a river

The body is taken down to the river

death
Death
  • Cremation is the 16th & final samskara.
  • Dead bodies are washed, clothed in a new shroud and taken to a funeral pyre for cremation.
  • The eldest son walks around the pyre with a lighted torch to prevent the soul returning to Earth as a ghost.
  • He pours ghee on the pyre as an offering to Agni the fire god.
  • The heat of the fire makes the skull crack and it is believed that at this point the Atman escapes.
shraddha
Shraddha
  • Shraddha is the practice of widows throwing themselves onto their husband’s funeral pyres.
  • This practice has now been outlawed in India and is incredibly rare.
death in uk
Death in UK
  • In the UK outdoor cremations are illegal so British Hindus would place the body into a coffin and have it cremated at the local crematorium.
  • Ashes are usually scattered into one of India’s holy rivers and many British Hindus arrange to have ashes sent to India for scattering.
summary
Summary
  • Samskaras are the 16 rites of passage in a Hindu’s life
  • 9 of the samskaras are connected with birth and childhood.
  • Sacred thread or Upanayana takes place between 8-16 and marks the start of the student ashrama.
  • The seven steps around the Havan represent all the things hoped for in a marriage.
  • Nearly all Hindus are cremated at death.