Better English Pronunciation for CommunicationA Practical Course for Students of EnglishWang GuizhenFaculty of English Language & CultureGuangdong University of Foreign Studies
RevisionWords SF Weak form Sample sentence • 1. a /eI/ /ə/ We've got a dog. • 2. an /æn/ /ən/ Take an apple. • 3. her /hə:/ /hə/, /ə:/, /ə/ What's her name? • 4. his /hIz/ /Iz/ John had his haircut. • 5. our /aʊə/ /ɑ:/ We can do it on our own. • 6. some /sʌm/ /səm/, /sm/ Get me some water. • 7. the /ði:/ /ðI/, /ðə/ They saw the young and the old. • 8. your /jɔ:/ /jə/ Take your time. • 9. he /hi:/ /hI/, /I/ What did he do? • 10. me /mi:/ /mI/ Let me have a look. • 11. she /ʃi:/ /ʃI/ Did she come? • 12. them /ðem/ /ðəm/, /ðm/ Let them go. • 13. us /ʌs/ /əs/ He told us a story. • 14. we /wi:/ /wI/ Here we are.
Words SF Weak form Sample sentence • 15. you /ju:/ /jʊ/ Did you see my pen? • 16. him /hIm/ /Im/ Give him a pen. • 17. am /æm/ /əm/, /m/ I'm proud of it. • 18. are /ɑ:/ /ə/ What are you doing? • 19. be /bi:/ /bI/ Don't be late. • 20. can /kæn/ /kən/, /kn/ What can I do? • 21. do /du:/ /də/, /d/ What do you do on Sundays? • 22. does /dʌz/ /dəz/ When does the train leave? • 23. had /hæd/ /həd/, /əd/, /d/ How many had he had? • 24. has /hæz/ /həz/, /əz/, /z/, /s/ What has happened? • 25. have /hæv/ /həv/, /əv/, /v/ The kids have gone. • 26. is /Iz/ /z/, /s/ He is coming. • 27. must /mʌst/ /məst/,/məs/ We must go now. • 28. shall /ʃæl/ /ʃəl/, /əl/ What shall we do?
Words SF Weak form Sample sentence • 29. was /wɒz/ /wəz/, /wz/ He was out. • 30. were /wə:/ /wə/ We were all late. • 31. will /wIl/ /wəl/, /əl/ That will do. • 32 at /æt/ /ət/ Look at him. • 33. for /fɔ:/ /fə/ Is it for me? • 34. from /frɒm//frəm/, /frm/ They come from the states. • 35. of /ɒv/ /əv/, /v/, /f/ It's very kind of you. • 36. to /tu:/ /tə/ You don't have to worry. • 37. and /ænd/ /ənd/, /ən/, /nd/, /n/ We had fish and chips. • 38. as /æz/ /əz/ Just as you like. • 39. but /bʌt/ /bət/ It's good but expensive. • 40. so /səʊ/ /sə/ It's not so cold here. • 41. than /ðæn/ /ðən/ It's bigger than this. • 42. that /ðæt/ /ðət/ He said that he was coming.
The pronunciation of the function word "and" • cream and sugar • knives and forks • big and small • rock and roll • fish and chips • pens and pencils • sandwich and coffee • peanut butter and jelly • hamburger and fires • rich and famous • nickels and dimes • men and women • tables and chairs • boys and girls • radio and television • sons and daughters • doctors and patients • father and mother • teachers and students • war and peace
Reading aloud –First, identify words that are stressed. Pay special attention to the weak forms. A Big Head and a Big Mouth An idiom is a group of words with a special meaning. The words in the idiom do not have their usual, ordinary meanings. English is full of idioms. You know some already, and you will certainly learn more. Many idioms mention parts of the body: the head, the hands, the heart, and so on. You might hear a girl say, “My brother’s getting a big head.” The boy’s head isn’t growing! A big head is an idiom: this boy thinks he is very important and special. His sister doesn’t think he is. She says that he’s getting too confident. A friend might tell you, “Be careful. That girl has a big mouth.” The literal meaning is That girl’s mouth is large. However, have a big mouth is also an idiom. Your friend means the girl talks too much or she tells other people’s secrets. Your friend is giving you some advice: You shouldn’t tell that girl any private information. You can’t trust her to keep quiet.
Reading aloud –Identify words that are stressed first. Pay special attention to the weak forms. • An idiom is a group of words with a special meaning. • The words in the idiom do not have their usual, ordinary meanings. • English is full of idioms. • Many idioms mention parts of the body. • My brother’s getting a big head. • The boy’s head isn’t growing! • A big head is an idiom. • This boy thinks he is very important and special. • She says that he’s getting too confident. • That girl has a big mouth. • The literal meaning is that girl’s mouth is large. • However, have a big mouth is also an idiom. • Your friend is giving you some advice. • You shouldn’t tell that girl any private information. • You can’t trust her to keep quiet.
Unit 11 Linking & Contraction In English Utterances
Do the following exercises online, paying special attention to the strong forms and weak forms. LinkingLinking (2)Linking (3)Linking (4)Linking (5)Listen and writeLinking (6) Say after meSay after me (2)Stress & linkingListen & answerListen & answer(2)
Types of Linking • To blend or join the final consonant of one word with the initial word of the following word, as in "post office". • 2. To link the final vowels /з:/ and /ə/ to a following vowel by adding the /r/ sound, which is called linking-r, as in "her own", or intrusive-r, as in "the idea of". • To make smooth transitions when words are separated by more than two consonants, i.e. treat them as consonant sequences, as in "next topic". • To make smooth transitions when the preceding word ends with a vowel and the following word begins also with a vowel sound by adding a slight /j/ or /w/, as in "my arm". • To change the pronunciation of some final and initial consonants, as in "Did you …".
Mark the linking • a lot of work • as soon as possible • the dog outside • I have quite enough. • Both of us went out. • The fish is excellent. • Come along home if you like. • John won an award. • He fetched it for me. • Tell us all about it. • Is he ill again? • We're going to put it off. • Would you like a walk now? • Are we going to leave at eight? • Who is going to wash it? • Can I offer you an apple? • Is Alice at home? • Let's leave the cat at home. • Is the boss in the office? • I'm afraid he's out.
Mark the linking • a lotof work • as soon as possible • the dog outside • I have quite enough. • Both of us went out. • The fish is excellent. • Come along home if you like. • Johnwon an award. • He fetched it for me. • Tell us all about it. • Is he ill again? • We're going to put it off. • Would you like a walknow? • Are we going to leave at eight? • Who is going to washit? • Can I offer you an apple? • Is Alice at home? • Let'sleave the cat at home. • Is the boss in the office? • I'm afraid he's out. ﴿
Mark the linking • She is going to major in English. • Are you going to buy some more eggs? • Is your hometown far away? • Say that over and over again. • Don't go out after eight. • There are nine all together. • They're new to the work after all. • Where are you staying? • Peter isn't here yet. • It's going to clear up soon. • Would you like to share it? • Both my father and mother are coming tonight. • They've been there for an hour. • They keep it for their own use. • The author is going to give a talk. • Did you see the car at the door? • Was Susanna in last night? • They're media efforts. • This is Beta Engineering. • Give me an example of Formula A.
Mark the linking • She is going to major /r/ in English. • Are you going to buy some more /r/eggs? • Is your hometownfar /r/away? • Saythat over /r/and over /r/again. • Don'tgoout after /r/eight. • There /r/are nine alltogether. • They're new to the work after /r/all. • Where /r/are you staying? • Peter /r/isn'thereyet. • It's going to clear /r/up soon. • Would you like to share /r/it? • Both my father /r/and mother /r/are comingtonight. • They've been there for /r/an hour. • They keep it for their /r/ownuse. • The author /r/is going to give a talk. • Did you see the car /r/at the door? • Was Susanna /r/inlast night? • They're media /r/efforts. • This is Beta /r/Engineering. • Give me an example of Formula /r/A.
Mark the linking • The work is half finished. • Give Vicky a job. • Next, we'll mix sand and water. • Are they going to take it with them? • Look at those black cards. • We saw a big gap. • That car is new. • Shall we keep going? • He was with his family. • Don't stop them. • You look sad. • Put the cat down. • Stop fighting, boys. • I'll have several meetings this week. • Can I speak to John? • Can you repeat what you said? • He phoned the teacher last night. • Do you start working at eight? • He's not in at the moment. • Could it be possible?
Mark the linking • The work is half finished • Give Vicky a job. • Next, we'll mix sand and water. • Are they going to take it with them? • Look at those black cards. • We saw a big gap. • That car is new. • Shall we keep going? • He was with his family. • Don't stop them. • You look sad. • Put the cat down. • Stop fighting, boys. • I'll have several meetings this week. • Can I speak to John? • Can you repeat what you said? • He phoned the teacherlast night. • Do you start working at eight? • He's notin at the moment. • Could it be possible?
Mark the linking • My ears hurt. • Can you say it again? • We agreed to take him along. • May I ask you a question? • It was windy actually. • Did you see the two others? • He's not going to do anything. • You have another two hours. • How old is the boy? • Will Joe eat it? • How about going to my aunt for help? • Who else saw it and what did they say about it? • He's blue in the face and looks funny actually. • We often go over to my uncle's. • We always go early in the morning. • What is the answer to "How are you"? • She knew I would say it again. • Are you listening to everything I say? • Can you ask him to give me a call? • That's too early for the application.
Mark the linking • My/j/ earshurt. • Can you say it again? • We/j/ agreed to take him along. • May/j/ I ask you a question? • It was windy/j/ actually. • Did you see the two/w/ others? • He's not going to do/w/ anything. • You have anothertwo/w/ hours. • How/w/ old is the boy? • Will Joe/w/ eat it? • How/w/ about going to my/j/ aunt for help. • Who/w/ elsesaw it and what did they say/j/ about it? • He's blue/w/ in the face and looks funny/j/ actually. • We oftengo/w/ over to my/j/ uncle's. • We/j/ alwaysgo early/j/ in the morning. • What is the/j/ answer to "How/w/ are you"? • She knew/w/ I would say/j/ it again. • Are you listening to/w/ everything I say/j/ about him? • Can you/w/ ask him to give me/j/ a call? • That'stoo/w/ early for the/j/ application.
Mark the linking • Won't you go tomorrow? • Weren't you at home last night? • Don't you like it? • Can't you see the point? • Couldn't you finish it by eight? • But you were late last night. • I wanted to connect you, but you were out. • I tried to put you through. • It doesn't fit you. • Is that what you want? • Did you say that yourself? • Would you do me a favour? • Would you mind opening the door? • Could you come with me? • How did they find you? • What did you say? • Who would you like to speak to? • They need your help. • You made your bed this morning, didn't you? • She heard your voice.
Mark the linking • Won't /ʧ/ you gotomorrow? • Weren't /ʧ/ you at homelastnight? • Don't /ʧ/ you like it? • Can't /ʧ/ you see the point? • Couldn't /ʧ/ you finish it by eight? • But /ʧ/you were latelastnight. • I wanted to connect /ʧ/ you, but /ʧ/ you were out. • I tried to put /ʧ/you through. • It doesn'tfit /ʧ/ you. • Is thatwhat /ʧ/ you want? • Did /ʤ/you saythat /ʧ/ yourself? • Would /ʤ/you do me a favour? • Would /ʤ/you mindopening the door? • Could /ʤ/you come with me? • How did they find /ʤ/ you? • What did /ʤ/you say? • Who would /ʤ/you like to speak to? • They need /ʤ/ your help. • You made /ʤ/ your bedthismorning, didn't /ʧ/ you? • She heard /ʤ/ your voice.
Reading aloud –First, identify words that are stressed. Pay special attention to the linking. Comfort Food It’s natural for people to eat when they’re hungry. But people eat for other reasons, too. Do you ever eat because you’re with friends and everyone else is eating? Do you ever eat because you feel tired, or because you are under stress? Many people do. People often eat to feel better. When people eat to feel better, they don’t eat just anything. They want specific kinds of food. They want food that helps them relax. They want comfort food. What is comfort food? For most people, it’s food that is easy to prepare. It is often soft, so it is easy to eat. Eating it gives people a warm feeling. Sometimes it is a type of food that people loved as children. Maybe they used to eat it at specific times or places. Maybe it is food their mother used to make. Comfort food makes people feel “Somebody’s taking care of me.” Yes. People eat to feel better. But more often, they eat comfort foods when they already feel happy. They eat them to celebrate or reward themselves.
Reading aloud –Identify words that are stressed first. Pay special attention to the linking. • It’s natural for people to eat when they’re hungry. • People eat for other reasons. • Do you eat because you’re with friends? • Do you eat because you are under stress? • People often eat to feel better. • They want specific kinds of food. • They want food that helps them relax. • What is comfort food? • It is food that is easy to prepare. • Eating it gives people a warm feeling. • It is a type of food that people loved as children. • They used to eat it at specific times or places. • It is food their mother used to make. • Somebody’s taking care of me. • They eat comfort foods when they already feel happy.
(D = David A = Shop-assistant) A: Good morning. What can I do for you? D: I’m looking for a good watch. A: Then you’ve come to the right place. We have many makes and many kinds of watches. D: That sounds good. A: Is it for yourself? D: Yes, it is. Can I see some watches? A: Were you thinking of a digital watch or a conventional watch? D: Oh, a conventional watch. A: I have a beautiful watch here, made just for you. D: That’s really nice looking. Can I put it on? A: Certainly. Let me help you. D: How much does it cost? A: This watch is – let me check the price tag – 699 Yuan. D: It’s too expensive for me. I guess I’ll shop around. Thank you for your help.
(S = Secretary G = George) • G : May I speak to the manager, please? • S : I’m sorry. Mr. Pearson’s just gone to Hong Kong for a conference. He won’t be back until Sunday. Would you like to leave a message? • G: No, thanks. I think I’ll wait until next Monday. Will he be available then? • S : Hang on a moment please. I’ll check his timetable for you … Yes, here… A trade delegation from West Germany will be arriving at 10:00 on Monday morning and Mr Pearson is to meet them at the airport. • G : So I shall have to call him up early in the morning. • S : Well, you may get him if you are lucky but Mr Pearson is a very busy man, you know. • G : Thanks for telling me. If I don’t get him the first time, I’ll keep on ringing – if you don’t mind. • S : Certainly not. Bye. • G : Bye.
Pronunciation in communication: Asking for/Giving permissions Student A = a Chinese student; Student B = a teacher from Britain Situation: Take turns to be Student A, who is going to make various requests which are listed on a card. Student B, who plays the role of the teacher, will give appropriate responses according to what is listed on his/her card. Try to speak fluently and naturally. Possible steps: Student Astarts the conversation. Student A makes various requests . Student B gives appropriate responses…. …
For Student A • Practice making the following requests appropriately • borrow a book • use your teacher's library card • hand in your assignment next week instead of tomorrow • smoke in your teacher's flat • speak to your teacher after class • use your teacher's scotch tape • use your teacher's car this evening • borrow Monday's China Daily • read the paper on language learning written by your teacher • ask him/her to be a judge for your speech contest
For Student B • Practice giving appropriate responses to the requests according to the hints given. • You would need the book in two weeks. • Students are not allowed to use the teacher's library card. • The announcement was made a month ago. • It's not healthy to smoke. • Ask him/her to come to your office. It's quieter there. • The scotch tape is on the desk. • You are going out yourself this evening. • Li Ming has Monday's China Daily. • He/she can keep the paper if he/she likes. • You would like to do it.
Assignment • On-line exercises http://felc.gdufs.edu.cn/pronunciation/ • Presentations • Reading aloud the passage on pp 126-7. • A one-minute mini-talk: (p.130) Pronunciation in communication: Offering Help/Things
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